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The Roman Navy
How quickly and in how many boat lengths could a trireme make a 180 degree turn?
Model of a Roman bireme
While it is the Roman legion that leaps to mind when discussing Rome’s military might, the navy also played a vital role during the later Republic and early Empire.
The Roman Navy before the Empire
The early Romans were not a seafaring nation, and the early Republic did not have an effective navy. That changed with the First Punic War (264-241 BC) against the maritime city of Carthage. By 256, Rome had built a navy of 330 ships.
In 261 BC, the Senate ordered the construction of 100 quinqueremes and 20 triremes (oared galleys with 5 and 3 rows of oars, respectively). The Greek historian, Polybius, reported that the first Roman quinqueremes were copies of a Carthaginian ship that ran aground and was captured. He claimed the entire Roman fleet of quinqueremes was built in 60 days. Although building an entire fleet of 100 ships in such a short time might seem unlikely, it may be that the ships were mass-produced based on that ship’s design.
A small Carthaginian warship that was recovered off Sicily had numbers and letters inscribed on the keel to show where the ribs should be placed. Instructions on where joints and cuts should be made were also inscribed in the wood. If the Carthaginians were mass-producing ships to a standard design, it is likely the Romans emulated them as they build their fleet of quinquiremes.
However, the Roman and Carthaginian approaches to building a ship had at least one significant difference. Remains from the final naval battle of the First Punic War between the Carthaginian and Roman fleets have been found just off Sicily. Among the finds were several bronze rams. Most were Roman and bore testimony to the Roman penchant for organization and quality engineering. Each ram was stamped with “Lucius Quinctius the son of Gaius, the quaestor, approved this ram.” In contrast, the single Carthaginian ram was inscribed with “We pray to Baal that this ram will go into this enemy ship and make a big hole.”
After 202 BC, the end of Second Punic War (when Hannibal crossed the Alps with elephants), the standing Roman navy was not maintained. Rome relied on ships provided by treaty with the maritime cities of Pergamum and Rhodes (in/near present-day Turkey).
Major problems with pirates led once more to the establishment of a standing navy. In 67 BC, the renowned general and former consul, Pompey, was charged by the Senate with ending the pirate raids that endangered the grain supply of Rome. By commandeering Greek galleys and organizing them into 13 fleets for an organized sweep, he scattered the pirates in 40 days. After only three months of naval action, the final battle at the main stronghold of the Cilician pirates essentially ended large-scale organized piracy in the Eastern Mediterranean. Pompey took 20,000 captives, captured 90 ships, and recovered enormous treasure.
The navy played a vital role as the Republic came to an end. As many as a thousand ships of the Roman navy were involved in the Civil War between Pompey and Julius Caesar that ended in with Pompey’s death in 48 BC.
The Battle of Actium by Laureys a Castro (1672)
After Julius Caesar’s assassination on the Ides of March in 44 BC, war broke out between Marcus Antonius and Octavian (Caesar’s heir by adoption). Sea power was crucial in the battle of Actium, which was decisive in determining the winner. With the main forces of Anthony and Cleopatra on the northwest coast of Greece, Octavian’s admiral, Vipsianus Agrippa, cut off their supplies. More than a hundred of Anthony’s fleet of 200 ships surrendered to Octavian after Anthony and Cleopatra escaped by sea.
The Roman Navy during the Empire
Octavian became Caesar Augustus, the Republic became the Empire, and the navy remained an important part of the Roman military system during Augustus’s rule.
The two major fleets were based in Italy. The Misene was based in the Bay of Naples with 10,000 men patrolling the western regions of the Italian coast and the Mediterranean. The Ravennate had 5000 men patrolling the Adriatic Sea and the eastern Mediterranean. There were 8 provincial fleets, some of which were based on rivers: Alexandrina (Egyptian coast and the Nile), Syriaca (Syrian coast and Aegean Sea), Moesica (eastern Danube and northern Black Sea), Pannonica (middle and upper Danube), Lauriacensis (upper Danube near Enns River), Pontica (southern and eastern Black Sea), Germania (Rhine River into the North Sea), and Britannica (English coastline).
Misenum, on the northern shore of the Bay of Naples, was the headquarters of the main fleet (classis) for almost 400 years. It was established for Augustus by Agrippa after the war with Anthony and Cleopatra. There were 10,000 men and more than fifty ships based in this strictly military harbor in AD 69. Detachments were based at several major ports along the western coast, including Ostia, the main port at the mouth of the Tiber that served Rome itself.
The second Italian fleet was established in 25 BC at Ravenna on the Adriatic Sea at the Po River. Like Misenum, it was strictly a military harbor. It had mostly triremes and a contingent of about 5000 men in AD 69.
After the end of the 2nd century, the old policy of assembling a navy for each emergency was resumed. There were ten fleets in AD 230. By 284, only the two Italian fleets remained. Piracy had again become a major problem. Under Diocletian, the old fleets were replaced with much smaller flotillas, each based in a single port and responsible for patrolling a small area near the home port. When Constantine and Licinius fought over a splitting empire in AD 324, the imperial navy of Augustus was no longer recognizable.
Roman warships (naves longae) derived from Greek galley designs. In the ocean-going fleets, the three main designs were trireme, quadrireme, and quinquereme. During the Republic, the quinquereme was the standard ship. After the battle of Actium at the start of the Empire, the trireme became the main ship.
The ships were long and narrow, usually with a 7:1 proportion. None are known to have been longer than 200 feet. They rode low in the water and were not very stable in high seas.
While merchant ships were sheathed with metal (often lead), there is no evidence the warships were. In the winter, they were hauled ashore and often stored under cover to protect them.
Power was provided by oarsmen and sails. A trireme had three banks of oars with 150 rowers. Each rower pulled his own oar. The quinqueremes are believed to have had five men pulling each massive oar, giving a rowing crew of 400. For the triremes, speeds up to nine or ten knots were possible in short spurts (ramming speed). One large sail midship, with a mast that could be lowered at sea for battle, and another smaller sail near the bow could provide propulsion when precise control was not needed.
A Greek trireme, the Olympias, was constructed according to a 5th or 4th century BC design in 1985. With a length of 121 feet (40 m) , a width of 17 feet (5.5 m), and a beam (height) of 18 feet (5.3 m), it weighed 70 tons. Its maneuverability was astounding. A crew of 170 oarsmen demonstrated a 180 degree turn within one minute with a curve no wider than 2 ½ ship-lengths by the oarsmen on one side not rowing while those on the opposite side rowed. In sea trials, steady speeds of 2.15 knots (2.5 mph or 4.0 km/hr) and short-burst speeds of 9 knots (10.6 mph or 17 km/hr) were achieved. Not quite enough for the captain to waterski, no matter what the old joke says.
Relief from Trajan’s column: Smaller ships of the provincial fleet used in the Dacian war
Smaller ships were often used in the provincial fleets. One popular ship was the liburna, a small, fast ship modeled on those used by the Liburni pirate tribe. One or two banks of oars were manned by two men each. It had a single triangular sail on a long yard mounted at a 45° angle to the mast. The fleets also had smaller boats suitable for ferrying infantry and supplies on rivers.
Roman battle tactics were a combination of naval engagement and infantry assault. The warships were equipped with a bronze-sheathed ram (rostrum) near sea level for puncturing the enemy hull, but “ramming speed” wasn’t the most important battle cry. The preferred method of attack was to land marines on the enemy deck and take the ship in hand-to-hand combat. After all, an enemy ship sunk brings glory, but an enemy ship taken brings glory and wealth.
The original boarding device, used at the time of the First Punic war, was a long plank (corvus) that could be lowered from the bow to drive a spike into the deck of the targeted ship. A switch to grappling hooks on a pole or chain let the crew draw up against the side of the enemy. The soldiers could then cross light ladders to the enemy deck.
A major advance was devised by Agrippa, commander of Augustus’s fleets. The harpax fired a grappling hook from a catapult, greatly increasing the range at which a ship could be snared.
Organization of the Roman Fleet
The navy was a less prestigious arm of the military, more analogous to the auxilia staffed by noncitizens commanded by equestrians than to the legions with their citizen soldiers and senatorial commanders.
The commander of each fleet was a prefect from the equestrian order, like the prefects who commanded the auxiliaries. The fleets were originally staffed with army officers. For a time under Claudius, the job was part of a civil career with some men having no real military experience. After this proved inadequate, Vespasian reorganized the navy and raised the status of its officers.
Prefect of the Misene Fleet was considered one of the most important equestrian posts and an excellent end to an illustrious career. Pliny the Elder held this post when Mount Vesuvius erupted. He took the fleet to rescue survivors, stayed to study the eruption, and died in the poisonous gases.
The posts of prefect of the fleet based at Misenum in the Bay of Naples or Ravenna on the northern Adriatic were administrative with little chance to see battle. Smaller provincial fleets were commanded by equestrian prefects and were equivalent to the command of an auxilia unit. In the 2nd century, the typical term of service for prefects was four to five years.
The lower ranking officers were based on the Greek model and had Greek names. The navarch (navarchus) was a squadron commander with 10 or so ships under his command. The triarch (triarchus) was a ship’s captain. These officers under Augustus were usually skilled Greek sailors. There were limited opportunities for advancement, and the navy was considered a lesser arm of the Roman military machine.
Crews were organized along Greek lines but with a Roman military command superimposed. Each ship had a small administrative staff under an older legionary on detached duty (a beneficiarius). In addition, a centurion and his second in command, the optio, were over the crew and the small force of infantry. The exact relationship in terms of rank and control between the triarch and centurion is not clear. All members of the crew were trained for battle, which presumably was directed by the centurion.
Rome and the rest of Italy had no great tradition of seafaring, so most of the sailors were from the provinces that engaged in maritime trade. Some were free men who were Roman citizens, but most were probably peregrines (not citizens of Rome). Egypt provided many sailors for the Roman warships. While commercial ships might have slave rowers, the Roman navy used free men who enlisted to serve the military goals of Rome, just like a legionary or auxiliary soldier.
The crew, rowers and otherwise, were recruited from the common people. Men enlisted in the navy for a 26-year term of service (one year more than an enlistee in a Roman auxiliary unit). Upon discharge, the sailor became a Roman citizen.
The crew of a warship included both sailors and a small force of trained infantry, much like today’s marines. The rowers and other crewmembers trained in the use of arms as well. In battle, the ship maneuvered close to the enemy ship to allow the infantry to board and fight to take over the enemy ship. Sometimes the crew also engaged the enemy.
When necessary, men from the navy could be transferred to bring a depleted legion to full strength. Nero, Vespasian, and Hadrian used the fleet as a source of warriors to replenish the I and II Adiutrix and the X Fretensis legions.
Adkins, Lesley and Roy A. Adkins. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Beard, Mary. SPQR: A History of Ancient Rome. New York: Liveright Publishing, 2016.
Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Complete Roman Army. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd., 2003.
Webster, Graham. The Roman Imperial Army of the First and Second Centuries A.D. 3rd ed. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.
Images of Trajan’s column and “The Battle of Actium” and the map of Roman fleet locations in public domain.
Calling All Rowers: Ancient Trireme "Olympias" Set to Sail (video)
The trireme “Olympias,” the world’s only working model of an ancient trireme, will be available again this summer to the public for tours. The iconic ship of classical Athens led to its total dominance of the seas in those centuries. Lucky visitors may visit the stunning wooden vessel or even try their hand at rowing it, out in the Saronic Gulf.
It is the fourth year in a row that the trireme will be open to visitors and volunteer rowers.
The Hellenic Navy said that rowers will have to be at least fifteen years of age, and trips will begin on June 23, from the Palaio Faliro area near Flisvos Marina.
For those wishing to participate interactively, sitting at a rower’s position and rowing in place, tours will begin on June 19.
Information displayed will include the history of the trireme and what it would have been like to travel on one of the graceful wooden ships in ancient Greece.
For both kinds of visits, the Navy recommends sport attire, including sport shoes, comfortable clothing and a hat. No food, coffee or refreshments will be allowed on board. Reservations are necessary for both types of visits and can be made by calling 6940471218 from 09:00-13:00 to July 19, except for June 17 and the same hours, from September 2 to 11.
Rowers will additionally need to register online (http://averof.mil.gr/kopilatikos-ploys/) outgoing trips will not take non-rowing passengers.
Ancient Athenian warship Olympias
Sailing on the Ancient Athenian warship, Olympias. Enjoy a unique expeience on the unique replica of the ancient ship as it was passing through the Faliro area of Athens.
Posted by Greek Reporter on Wednesday, July 18, 2018
Model of a Greek warship from the fifth century B.C.
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Glimpses of the Trireme Olympias in Action
The Olympias was the brainchild of classicist John Morrison, who first proposed a method by which vertical banks of rowers could row without snarling oars. Teaming up with retired Chief Naval Architect of the UK Ministry of Defense John Coates, they formed the Trireme Trust in 1982 to test Morrison&aposs hypothesis. Coates drew up plans based on Morrison&aposs research. Eventually the Greek Ministry of Tourism and the Hellenic Navy signed on to build and conduct sea trials on the Olympias.
The Olympias by D. Galbi, Creative Commons
Rowing an Ancient Greek Trireme
For a fleeting moment this summer, I had the opportunity to inhabit the role of an ancient Greek sailor. For three euros, the modern Greek Navy gave me and about 170 other fantasizers the chance to be a rower on the Olympias, a reconstructed trireme 37 meters long (122 feet).
A trireme was a seagoing vessel used by the Greeks in the 7 th to 4 th centuries BC as a fast and agile warship. The Olympias was built in the 1980s based on detailed discussions with history, literature and archaeology experts to approximate a true trireme. However, the actual materials used for the Olympias were presumably inaccessible to Mediterranean boat builders — Oregon pine, Virginia oak and iroko, a teak-like wood from tropical Africa used for the keel.
Triremes are propelled by three tiers of oars on both sides with an upper seat, middle seat and lower seat. I scrambled for an upper seat on the Olympias which offered a full view of the sea. Late-comers were relegated to the bottom tier with no views and no breeze. I imagined those seats were once reserved for the slaves. Yet, on researching triremes, I learned that the ancient navies were composed only of free men by which many, particularly working class Athenians, could fulfill their military service obligations. Foreign mercenaries were also aboard, but no slaves, except in emergencies, and then they were set free before employment.
It was a little awkward reaching my “window” seat, bending low and stepping over and between long wooden oars. Perched on a square piece of wood, I placed my feet on what looked like inverse starting blocks for sprint races with leather straps to lace up. For serious rowers these foot things probably served the same purpose as toe clips do for cyclists.
There were approximately 170 of us rowers on this sunny late afternoon, plus a number of young kids allowed to sit in the aisles next to their parents. We were a pretty pathetic crew with no prior training and next to no instructions. When the captain yelled “ena” (one), you hovered your oar over the water. When he yelled “dio” (two), you dropped the oar and pulled it towards you through the water. Sounds simple enough but humans are not ants or bees who instinctively know how to work in unison. Our group rowed as if each of us were alone in our own private rowboat oblivious to what the others were doing. The vertical tiers of oars kept colliding with each other which resulted in putting the vessel way too close to the jetty. I felt a little sheepish when a Navy motor ship had to rescue the Olympias and tow us out to the open sea.
Once in the Argo Saronic waters, the real crew (the Navy) rose the two masts. I regret I didn’t make an effort to struggle out of my seat to go up to the deck as surely those two sails must have been a beautiful view. In the open waters with nothing around for miles, we practiced our moves and actually began to achieve a modicum of group coordination. By the time we got back to port the crew was rowing in earnest harmony. It was a truly a unique experience.
The Olympias is docked full time in dry dock at Flisvos Marina along with other historic ships in the open air museum known as Naval Tradition Park. This trireme replica is the only commissioned vessel of its kind in any of the world’s navies.
The appearance and evolution of medieval warships is a matter of debate and conjecture: until recently, no remains of an oared warship from either ancient or early medieval times had been found, and information had to be gathered by analyzing literary evidence, crude artistic depictions and the remains of a few merchant vessels (such as the 7th-century Pantano Longarini wreck from Sicily, the 7th-century Yassi Ada ship and the 11th-century Serçe Limanı wreck). Only in 2005–2006 did archaeological digs for the Marmaray project in the location of the Harbor of Theodosius (modern Yenikapi) uncover the remains of over 36 Byzantine ships from the 6th to 10th centuries, including four light galleys of the galea type. 
The accepted view is that the main developments which differentiated the early dromons from the liburnians, and that henceforth characterized Mediterranean galleys, were the adoption of a full deck (katastrōma), the abandonment of the rams on the bow in favor of an above-water spur, and the gradual introduction of lateen sails.  The exact reasons for the abandonment of the ram (Latin: rostrum, Greek: ἔμβολος ) are unclear. Depictions of upward-pointing beaks in the 4th-century Vatican Vergil manuscript may well illustrate that the ram had already been replaced by a spur in late Roman galleys.  One possibility is that the change occurred because of the gradual evolution of the ancient shell-first mortise and tenon hull construction method, against which rams had been designed, into the skeleton-first method, which produced a stronger and more flexible hull, less susceptible to ram attacks.  Certainly by the early 7th century, the ram's original function had been forgotten, if we judge by Isidore of Seville's comments that they were used to protect against collision with underwater rocks.  As for the lateen sail, various authors have in the past suggested that it was introduced into the Mediterranean by the Arabs, possibly with an ultimate origin in India. However, the discovery of new depictions and literary references in recent decades has led scholars to antedate the appearance of the lateen sail in the Levant to the late Hellenistic or early Roman period.   Not only the triangular, but also the quadrilateral version were known, used for centuries (mostly on smaller craft) in parallel with square sails.  
Belisarius's fleet during the Vandalic War, as described by Procopius of Caesarea, was apparently at least partly fitted with lateen sails, making it probable that by that time the lateen had become the standard rig for the dromon,  with the traditional square sail gradually falling from use in medieval navigation.  These 6th-century dromons were single-banked ("monoreme") ships of probably 50 oars, arranged with 25 oars on each side.  Again unlike Hellenistic vessels, which used an outrigger, these extended directly from the hull.  In the later two-banked ("bireme") dromons of the 9th and 10th centuries, the two oar banks (elasiai) were divided by the deck, with the first oar bank was situated below, whilst the second oar bank was situated above deck these rowers were expected to fight alongside the ship's marines in boarding operations.  The Greek scholar Christos Makrypoulias suggests an arrangement of 25 oarsmen beneath and 35 on the deck on either side for a dromon of 120 rowers.  The overall length of these ships was probably about 32 meters.  Although most contemporary vessels had a single mast (histos or katartion), the larger bireme dromons probably needed at least two masts in order to maneuver effectively,  assuming that a single lateen sail for a ship this size would have reached unmanageable dimensions.  The ship was steered by means of two quarter rudders at the stern (prymnē), which also housed a tent (skēnē) that covered the captain's berth (krab(b)at(t)os).  The prow (prōra) featured an elevated forecastle (pseudopation), below which the siphon for the discharge of Greek fire projected,  although secondary siphons could also be carried amidships on either side.  A pavesade (kastellōma), on which marines could hang their shields, ran around the sides of the ship, providing protection to the deck crew.  Larger ships also had wooden castles (xylokastra) on either side between the masts, similar to those attested for the Roman liburnians, providing archers with elevated firing platforms.  The bow spur (peronion) was intended to ride over an enemy ship's oars, breaking them and rendering it helpless against missile fire and boarding actions. 
The four galeai ships uncovered in the Yenikapi excavations, dating to the 10th–11th centuries, are of uniform design and construction, suggesting a centralized manufacturing process. They have a length of about 30 metres (98 ft), and are built of European Black Pine and Oriental plane. 
By the 10th century, there were three main classes of bireme warships of the general dromon type, as detailed in the inventories for the expeditions sent against the Emirate of Crete in 911 and 949: the [chelandion] ousiakon ( [χελάνδιον] οὑσιακόν ), so named because it was manned by an ousia of 108 men the [chelandion] pamphylon ([χελάνδιον] πάμφυλον), crewed with up to 120–160 men, its name either implying an origin in the region of Pamphylia as a transport ship or its crewing with "picked crews" (from πᾶν+φῦλον , "all tribes") and the dromōn proper, crewed by two ousiai.  In Constantine VII's De Ceremoniis, the heavy dromōn is said to have an even larger crew of 230 rowers and 70 marines the naval expert John H. Pryor considers them as supernumerary crews being carried aboard, while Makrypoulias suggests that the extra men correspond to a second rower on each of the upper-bank oars.  A smaller, single-bank ship, the monērēs (μονήρης, "single-banked") or galea (γαλέα, from which the term "galley" derives), with ca. 60 men as crew, was used for scouting missions but also in the wings of the battle line. 
Three-banked ("trireme") dromons are described in a 10th-century work dedicated to the parakoimōmenos Basil Lekapenos. However, this treatise, which survives only in fragments, draws heavily upon references on the appearance and construction of a classical Greek trireme, and must therefore be used with care when trying to apply it to the warships of the middle Byzantine period.   The existence of trireme vessels is, however, attested in the Fatimid navy in the 11th and 12th centuries, and references made by Leo VI to large Arab ships in the 10th century may also indicate trireme galleys. 
For cargo transport, the Byzantines usually commandeered ordinary merchantmen as transport ships (phortēgoi) or supply ships (skeuophora). These appear to have been mostly sailing vessels, rather than oared.  The Byzantines and Arabs also employed horse-transports (hippagōga), which were either sailing ships or galleys, the latter certainly modified to accommodate the horses.  Given that the chelandia appear originally to have been oared horse-transports, this would imply differences in construction between the chelandion and the dromōn proper, terms which otherwise are often used indiscriminately in literary sources. While the dromōn was developed exclusively as a war galley, the chelandion would have had to have a special compartment amidships to accommodate a row of horses, increasing its beam and hold depth. 
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I moved to Greece on 23 September, and on 27th we moved from Mavromihalis to Evmenous with the help of three cheerful Albanians and what looked like a fruit and veg. lorry, to a beautiful apartment on the sixth floor. Our new district, Vironas, is situated behind the marble stadium and the First Cemetery, ten minutes' walk from the Leica Academy, where I'm doing a photography course, and about forty minutes' walk from Syntagma. It is sunny and very steep - Nea Elvetia is above us on a plateau. Parking is tricky. Since the recent earthquakes the area has become popular, as houses built on rocky outcrops are considered to be less at risk. We carry whistles on our keyrings and keep a torch and a bottle of water handy. We still have one or two aftershocks a week, between about 3.1 and 4.4, but I've only felt one of them. Vironas is an up and coming area (literally) with workmen in action on new high- rises from early morning, and street musicians walking about in the early evening. Above the normal city noises, you can hear the canaries sing. Life in Athens is varied, and great fun. Christopher Miles, whom some of you may remember making a film of Olympias, brought his new film A Clandestine Marriage to the Athens film Festival. It is delightful and very funny - much to be recommended.
On the ship, Aristotelis organized an exhibition to commemorate the centenary of George Averoff's death, with a few speeches, a reception, and excellent Gentilini wine (available from Oddbins in the UK) from the vineyards of Keffalonia which we had visited earlier this summer. George Averoff had been born in Metsovo, and became a cotton millionaire in Alexandria. He gave generously to Athens, providing funds to restore the Marble stadium for the 1896 Olympics Games, for two major statues outside the university, and left money in his will which was enough to provide a third of the cost of a capital ship which was named after him, and which was the most up-to-date vessel in the Balkan wars of 1912-13.
Our evenings are very varied, as there is so much going on. Monday was a treat - an evening marking the publication of Patrick Leigh Fermor's George Psychoundakis: A Letter to C.A. Trypanis, in which he argued that Psychoundakis should receive an award for his translations of Homer's Odyssey and Iliad into Cretan dialect.
For anyone unfamiliar with the story of George Psychoundakis, who was a shepherd boy in Crete at the outbreak of the War, I would recommend Fermor's book The Cretan Runner, reprinted by Penguin in 1998. He became a runner for the British forces during the Cretan Resistance, living in the mountains and reciting poetry from the 17th century epic Erotocritos when they were trapped in the caves by bad weather. Ironically, in recent years he has been the caretaker for the German cemetery.
George Psychoundakis was there, small in stature with a larger than life personality and a great sense of humour, two days short of his 80th birthday.
After speeches there was some Cretan dancing to the lute and lyra, and a reception at which we asked him and Patrick Leigh Fermor to sign our beaten-up old copy of The Cretan Runner.
Another recent event was a sale by Christie's, instigated by Lydia Carras (who was on th 1993 Committee that brought Olympias to London) to raise money for a Foundation for the protection of the environment. Of special interest were the books and maps, which included a copy of Bernard Randolph's Travels in Greece in 1687. He was one of Rob's antecedents, a merchant in Constantinople, who traveled extensively - including making several voyages to Massachusetts, where his brother had settled.
Athens is cooler now. There are still some late summer butterflies - Red Admirals, Swallowtails and Peacocks fluttering amongst the traffic. We were swimming until the clocks changed, and the sea was quite warm. Some days are still T-shirt weather, on others you need more. We have bought firewood, but never seem to be in long enough to light a fire ! Trireme Trust Home Page