Women in the First World War, Neil R. Storey and Molly Housego

Women in the First World War, Neil R. Storey and Molly Housego


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Women in the First World War, Neil R. Storey & Molly Housego

Women in the First World War, Neil R. Storey and Molly Housego

This book looks at a topic familiar to students of the Second World War, the role of Women in the war effort, but focuses on the First World War. The key difference between the role of women in the First and Second World Wars is that in the Second World War there was never any doubt that women would serve in large numbers, overseas and at home, and in and out of uniform. This was not the case during the First World War - indeed the uniformed Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) and Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS) didn't appear until 1917, and many earlier voluntary groups were spurned by the military authorities.

The worst case was perhaps that of the Scottish Women's Hospitals, which by 1918 was providing fourteen hospital units and working with every Allied army apart from the British! Even at home there was resistance to the use of women to fill jobs left empty by the troops, or new jobs created by the war, especially in the munitions industry, and it was only really in 1916 that large numbers of women began to work in industry.

This is a valuable introduction to an important topic, looking at the struggles so many women faced to overcome the deeply ingrained prejudice of 1914 as they attempted to make a contribution to the war effort, and the eventual successes that led directly to women's suffrage.

Chapters
Nursing Services
Munitionettes and Woman War Workers
On the Land
In Uniform
Demob and Legacies
Further Reading

Author: Neil R. Storey & Molly Housego
Edition: Paperback
Pages: 64
Publisher: Shire
Year: 2010



Women in the First World War by Neil R. Storey - Molly Housego - 9780

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Women In The First World War: Neil R Storey and Molly Housego

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Women In The First World War: Neil R Storey and Molly Housego

Thankfully many did not heed this advice, and their story is told in words and pictures in WOMEN IN THE FIRST WORLD WAR (Shire, £5.99), by Neil R Storey and Molly Housego.

This slim volume is full of historical documents, colour photographs, memoirs and ephemera that chart the changing role of women during the Great War and the crucial part they played, from nursing and munitions work to bus conductors and land girls.


A Turning Point? Women in WWI

This month saw the release of the film, Suffragette, a historical drama depicting women’s fight for the vote in pre-war Britain. Set in 1912, the events depicted in the film are soon followed by the outbreak of war just two years later. By the end of the war, female suffrage had been won – albeit only for a specific proportion of Britain’s women.

“Women of Britain Say – Go!” Wikipedia Commons

The First World War is often cited as a key turning point in the history of women’s rights. Women took up roles that were largely unimaginable before 1914, and options taken for granted today only became possible as a result of women’s war work. The Representation of the People Act, passed in 1918, granted the vote to women over the age of 30 that could be classed as ‘householders’. It was not until a decade later in Britain, that suffrage was extended to include all women over twenty one.

When war came, the government asked women to support the effort by encouraging her husband, son or brother to enlist. Posters called upon women to say “Go!” to their men. But with patriotism sweeping across Britain, many women clearly wished to make another contribution – even if they were not permitted on the battlefield. In 1914, the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies suspended its campaigning for the vote in order to concentrate on the war effort.[1] A number of groups and societies were established – often led by women of middle class or aristocratic backgrounds – with the aim of contributing to the war effort in a variety of ways. This enthusiasm and patriotism was also reflected by the work of many women in Richmond. The Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD), founded in 1909, was predominantly made of up women and girls.[2] The VAD had groups of women working across the Borough, with a Mrs Prendergast running the Richmond detachment. In Hampton, VAD nurses practised stretcher drills, bandaging and first aid.[3] Initially, VAD nurses were not permitted on the front line, but instead cared for wounded soldiers in British hospitals. As the war continued, the shortage of trained nurses on the battlefield led to the eventual acceptance of women in military hospitals overseas. Dorothy Hardy, from Twickenham, was awarded an MBE at the end of the war, for her service caring for injured soldiers in France and Germany.[4]

Nurses and Wounded Soldiers at Richmond Hospital, 1914 From Original Material held at Richmond upon Thames Local Studies

With vast numbers of men serving overseas, or recuperating from their injuries in hospitals, women began to take up the vacant positions in simple shop work, clerking and light agriculture. In March 1915, this expanded when the Board of Trade issued an appeal for women to register for paid ‘war service’ work.[5] In 1916, conscription was introduced, taking single men between the ages of 18 and 41 out of their jobs and their homes, and into khaki. As a result of this loss, more women were brought into the national workforce to fill the gaps. In East Twickenham, the ‘Canary Girls’ worked with a substance at Pelabon Munitions Factory that would turn their skin yellow. Lucy Joshua joined Kew Gardens as a female gardener in 1915, and played a key role in the growing of vegetables in the gardens at a time of shortage.[6]

Women at Work at Whitehead Aircarft Factory, Richmond, Original material held at Richmond upon Thames Local Studies Library and Archive

Between 1916 and 1918, women took on work that would have been unimaginable to pre-war Edwardian society. They worked as road sweepers, ticket collectors, messengers, drivers, gardeners, window cleaners, bricklayers, coal heavers and in munitions manufacture.[7] However, this work was largely labelled as temporary. When war ended in 1918, many women returned to the home, and those men who were able took up their jobs once more. Lucy Joshua left Kew in 1918, but with a good reference to allow her to secure employment elsewhere.[8] The Women’s Land Army was disbanded in 1919. With no war to fight, there was no longer a need for the ‘munitionettes’. Some effects of the First World War for women were longer lasting – the trouser, the bob – and although there would be some years until full women’s suffrage, the journey to greater freedoms had begun.

[1] Women in the First World War, Neil R. Storey and Molly Housego, (2010) Oxford p. 6

[3] Information Courtesy of Richmond upon Thames Local Studies Library and Archive

[4] 1914-1918 Richmond at Home and at War, Museum of Richmond (2014) p. 7

[5] Women in the First World War, Neil R. Storey and Molly Housego, (2010) Oxford p. 51

[6] Women Gardeners at Kew During the War of 1914-1918, Lucy H. Joshua http://www.kewguild.org.uk/articles/article/1807/

[7] Women in the First World War, Neil R. Storey and Molly Housego, (2010) Oxford pp. 34-35


Women in the First World War

The First World War was the conduit for some of the most dramatic changes in the role of women in British society. Suffragettes gave up their militant protests to support the war effort, and from the moment war broke out women were ready many had already trained as military and Voluntary Aid Detachment nurses. As more and more men left to serve in the armed forces more an The First World War was the conduit for some of the most dramatic changes in the role of women in British society. Suffragettes gave up their militant protests to support the war effort, and from the moment war broke out women were ready many had already trained as military and Voluntary Aid Detachment nurses. As more and more men left to serve in the armed forces more and more jobs, most of them pre-war preserves of men, were taken over by women, from postal deliveries to tram clippies, and delivery drivers to land workers.

The public outcry over the 'Shells Scandal' of 1915 led to unprecedented pressure to employ more women. The women were willing and 30,000 of them voiced their demand in one of the largest protest marches through London under the banner of 'We demand the right to serve.' And so they did, as the munitions factories expanded, and by the end of the war new military units such as the WAAC, WReNS and WRAF were created.

Told through historical documents, memoirs, photographs, uniforms and ephemera the authors present a study in empathy of those dramatic times, from women serving as nurses both at home and on the frontlines, to serving in weapons and other factories throughout Britain, to the uniforms and legacies of these brave volunteers. . more


Beschreibung

Informationen zum Autor Neil Storey is a graduate of the University of East Anglia. He has written numerous books covering a variety of social and military history topics. He has his own extensive archive, has worked on a number of television documentaries as historical consultant and regularly gives presentations and lectures for both academic and social audiences, at venues including the Imperial War Museum (Duxford). Neil also devised and writes the 'Ancestors at Work' articles published in the monthly Family Tree Magazine.Molly Housego has amassed her own archive of photographs and documents reflecting the changing role, costume and depiction of women from Early Modern Britain to the early Twentieth Century. She has made a specialised study of the role of women in the First and Second World Wars and lectures at the Imperial War Museum 'First World War Uncovered' events. Klappentext The First World War brought about dramatic changes in the role of women in British society. Suffragettes gave up their militant protests to support the war effort, and from the moment war broke out women were ready to help. As increasing numbers of men left to serve overseas, their duties were taken over by women, who took jobs as postal workers, tram clippies, delivery drivers, land workers and others. Then there were the famous'Munitionettes', the women who worked long hours in ammunition and military hardware factories. Women also joined auxiliary military units, such as the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, and acted as nurses near the front line. Told through historical documents, memoirs, photographs, uniforms and ephemera, the authors present a study of this turning point in British social history.An illustrated history of the role of British women in the First World War, at home and at the front, and in military and civilian occupations. Zusammenfassung As millions of young men marched off to war, they left behind mothers, wives and sisters who were determined to contribute to the British cause. They were first enrolled as nurses to treat wounded soldiers. Later in the war they were accepted into the armed services. This book looks at the realities and myths of the women's role in the war effort. Inhaltsverzeichnis Introduction /Nursing Services /Munitionettes and Women War Workers /On the Land /In Uniform /Demob and Legacies /Further Reading /Index.

Vorwort
An illustrated history of the role of British women in the First World War, at home and at the front, and in military and civilian occupations.

Autorentext
Neil Storey is a graduate of the University of East Anglia. He has written numerous books covering a variety of social and military history topics. He has his own extensive archive, has worked on a number of television documentaries as historical consultant and regularly gives presentations and lectures for both academic and social audiences, at venues including the Imperial War Museum (Duxford). Neil also devised and writes the 'Ancestors at Work' articles published in the monthly Family Tree Magazine. Molly Housego has amassed her own archive of photographs and documents reflecting the changing role, costume and depiction of women from Early Modern Britain to the early Twentieth Century. She has made a specialised study of the role of women in the First and Second World Wars and lectures at the Imperial War Museum 'First World War Uncovered' events.

The First World War brought about dramatic changes in the role of women in British society. Suffragettes gave up their militant protests to support the war effort, and from the moment war broke out women were ready to help. As increasing numbers of men left to serve overseas, their duties were taken over by women, who took jobs as postal workers, tram clippies, delivery drivers, land workers and others. Then there were the famous'Munitionettes', the women who worked long hours in ammunition and military hardware factories. Women also joined auxiliary military units, such as the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, and acted as nurses near the front line. Told through historical documents, memoirs, photographs, uniforms and ephemera, the authors present a study of this turning point in British social history.

Inhalt
Introduction /Nursing Services /Munitionettes and Women War Workers /On the Land /In Uniform /Demob and Legacies /Further Reading /Index


Women in the First World War, Neil R. Storey and Molly Housego - History

The National Archives have now listed 15000 First World War Nursing Service Records. The following is taken from their website introduction you can visit the National Archives at: http://nationalarchives.gov.uk/news/635.htm

Introduction

What are the Nursing Service Records?
Searching the records
What could these records help me to discover?
What do the records look like?
Further research

You can search and download over 15,000 First World War service records for nurses who served in the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service, the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service (Reserve) and the Territorial Force Nursing Service.

The Army Nursing Service came into formal existence in 1884 and ten years later a reserve of nurses was formed under the name of Princess Christian's Army Nursing Reserve. Experience of the medical services in the South African War 1899-1902, led to the creation of the professional Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service in March 1902. Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service then took over the reserve force and they were employed on a contract basis for the duration of the First World War.

The Territorial Reserve Forces Act 1907 led to the creation of a Territorial Force Nursing Service in 1908 to support its new force in 1922 it was renamed the Territorial Army Nursing Service. The personnel were administered by a branch (TV 4, later TA 4) under the Director General of the Territorial Army, although the provision of training came under the Directorate of Army Medical Services. The branch was also responsible as Joint Secretary to the Queen Alexandra's Army Nursing Board and Secretary to the Territorial Army Nursing Service Committee.

What are the Nursing Service Records?

This series contains the records of nurses who served in the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service (QAINMS), the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service (Reserve) QAIMNS(R) and the Territorial Force Nursing Service (TFNS). The whole series is arranged in two alphabetical sequences WO 399/1-9349 contains the records of the QAIMNS and QAIMNS(R) and WO 399/9350-15972 contains the records of the TFNS.
Although the vast majority of the records cover the First World War period only, there are some records for nurses who served prior to 1914 and some after the war. There are no records however after 1939.

Searching the records
You can search the records by:
First name
Last name
Alternatively, you may wish to browse details of the whole collection.

What could these records help me to discover?

The records can tell you where a nurse trained, (especially before the war), references relating to their suitability as military nurses, which hospitals, Field Ambulances, Casualty Clearing Stations or other medical units they served in, what their superiors thought of them (confidential reports) and when they left the services.
What do the records look like?
The majority of the records are based on pre-printed army forms, which were then completed in ink or pencil. The only items not on army forms are the references and any personal letters from the specific individual to the War Office or army nursing authorities.
To get an idea of what the records look like, see the record of Marjorie Turton.
Further research

It is possible to find nursing personnel in the collection of First World War Medal Index Cards (WO 372). These too can be searched for and downloaded on DocumentsOnline.
You may wish to view First World War Unit War Diaries. A selection of First World War Unit War Diaries can be downloaded from DocumentsOnline.
You can consult the registers of the recipients of the Royal Red Cross in WO 145 to find a person who received this award.

The Disability Pension Files, held in the document series PIN 26/19985-20286, contain records relating to nurses.

Research Guides

Online Resources

Books

First World War Army Service Records, William Spencer, The National Archives, 2006.
Women In The War Zone, Anne Powell, The History Press, 2009.
Sisters in Arms: British Army Nurses Tell Their Story , Nicola Tyrer, Phoenix.
Roses of No Man's Land, Lyn Macdonald, Penguin, 1993.
Women in the First World War, Neil Storey and Molly Housego, Shire, 2010.

The Nursing Times (RCN Journal) Nurses and nursing services: British Army


Friday, 4 November 2011

Nursing Records online

The National Archives have now listed 15000 First World War Nursing Service Records. The following is taken from their website introduction you can visit the National Archives at: http://nationalarchives.gov.uk/news/635.htm

Introduction

What are the Nursing Service Records?
Searching the records
What could these records help me to discover?
What do the records look like?
Further research

You can search and download over 15,000 First World War service records for nurses who served in the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service, the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service (Reserve) and the Territorial Force Nursing Service.

The Army Nursing Service came into formal existence in 1884 and ten years later a reserve of nurses was formed under the name of Princess Christian's Army Nursing Reserve. Experience of the medical services in the South African War 1899-1902, led to the creation of the professional Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service in March 1902. Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service then took over the reserve force and they were employed on a contract basis for the duration of the First World War.

The Territorial Reserve Forces Act 1907 led to the creation of a Territorial Force Nursing Service in 1908 to support its new force in 1922 it was renamed the Territorial Army Nursing Service. The personnel were administered by a branch (TV 4, later TA 4) under the Director General of the Territorial Army, although the provision of training came under the Directorate of Army Medical Services. The branch was also responsible as Joint Secretary to the Queen Alexandra's Army Nursing Board and Secretary to the Territorial Army Nursing Service Committee.

What are the Nursing Service Records?

This series contains the records of nurses who served in the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service (QAINMS), the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service (Reserve) QAIMNS(R) and the Territorial Force Nursing Service (TFNS). The whole series is arranged in two alphabetical sequences WO 399/1-9349 contains the records of the QAIMNS and QAIMNS(R) and WO 399/9350-15972 contains the records of the TFNS.
Although the vast majority of the records cover the First World War period only, there are some records for nurses who served prior to 1914 and some after the war. There are no records however after 1939.

Searching the records
You can search the records by:
First name
Last name
Alternatively, you may wish to browse details of the whole collection.

What could these records help me to discover?

The records can tell you where a nurse trained, (especially before the war), references relating to their suitability as military nurses, which hospitals, Field Ambulances, Casualty Clearing Stations or other medical units they served in, what their superiors thought of them (confidential reports) and when they left the services.
What do the records look like?
The majority of the records are based on pre-printed army forms, which were then completed in ink or pencil. The only items not on army forms are the references and any personal letters from the specific individual to the War Office or army nursing authorities.
To get an idea of what the records look like, see the record of Marjorie Turton.
Further research

It is possible to find nursing personnel in the collection of First World War Medal Index Cards (WO 372). These too can be searched for and downloaded on DocumentsOnline.
You may wish to view First World War Unit War Diaries. A selection of First World War Unit War Diaries can be downloaded from DocumentsOnline.
You can consult the registers of the recipients of the Royal Red Cross in WO 145 to find a person who received this award.

The Disability Pension Files, held in the document series PIN 26/19985-20286, contain records relating to nurses.

Research Guides

Online Resources

Books

First World War Army Service Records, William Spencer, The National Archives, 2006.
Women In The War Zone, Anne Powell, The History Press, 2009.
Sisters in Arms: British Army Nurses Tell Their Story , Nicola Tyrer, Phoenix.
Roses of No Man's Land, Lyn Macdonald, Penguin, 1993.
Women in the First World War, Neil Storey and Molly Housego, Shire, 2010.

The Nursing Times (RCN Journal) Nurses and nursing services: British Army


Description

This two-volume book provides the first comprehensive survey of opioid research, a field which has accumulated a tremendous amount of literature since the identification of opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands. In more than 60 chapters experts present state-of-the-art reviews of this fascinating field, the topics ranging from molecular biology to clinical applications. Part I covers the multiplicity of opioid receptors, the chemistry of opiates and opioid peptides as well as the neurophysiology of opioids. Part II reviews a broad spectrum of physiological and behavioral functions and pharmacological actions of opioids, together with their neuroendocrinology, opioid tolerance and dependence, concluding with pathophysiological aspects and clinical use.

Section A: Opioid Receptors/Multiplicity.- 1 Opioid Receptor Multiplicity: Isolation, Purification, and Chemical Characterization of Binding Sites.- A. Introduction.- B. Opioid Receptors Exist in Multiple Types.- C. Selective Ligands for the Major Types of Opioid Receptors.- D. Characterization of Membrane-Bound Opioid Receptor Types.- E. Putative Endogenous Ligands.- F. Separation and Purification of Opioid Binding Sites.- I. Solubilization.- II. Physical Separation.- III. Affinity Cross-Linking.- IV. Partial Purification.- V. Purification to Homogeneity.- G. Recent Studies on Purified ?-Opioid Binding Protein.- I. Antibodies Generated Against Peptide Sequences.- II. Rhodopsin Antibodies React with Purified OBP.- III. Attempts to Clone the cDNA of Purified OBP.- H. Concluding Comments.- References.- 2 Expression Cloning of cDNA Encoding a Putative Opioid Receptor.- A. Project History.- B. Expression Cloning.- I. Methodology.- II. Attempt by Stable Transfection.- III. Transient Transfection, Panning.- C. Ligand Binding by the Expressed Receptor.- D. Sequence Analysis, Structure of the Receptor.- E. Conclusions.- References.- 3 Characterization of Opioid-Binding Proteins and Other Molecules Related to Opioid Function.- A. Introduction.- B. cDNA Cloning.- I. Molecular Cloning of OBCAM.- II. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Gene Products Downregulated by Chronic Opioid Treatment of NG108-15 Cells.- III. Use of Consensus Sequences in cDNA Cloning of Opioid Receptors.- C. Use of Antibodies to Characterize Opioid Receptors.- D. Antisense cDNA.- References.- 4 Use of Organ Systems for Opioid Bioassay.- A. Introduction.- I. Rationale for the Use of Isolated Organ Systems.- II. Tissue Preparations.- III. Applications of Peripheral Tissue Bioassay.- B. Measurement of Pharmacological Constants.- I. Theoretical Considerations.- 1. Determination of Agonist Affinity.- 2. Determination of Antagonist Affinity.- II. Methodological Considerations.- 1. Choise of Tissue Preparation.- 2. Tissue Preparation and Setup.- 3. Optimization of Equilibrium Conditions.- C. Assay Preparations.- I. Guinea Pig Ileum.- 1. ?-Receptors.- 2. ?-Receptors.- 3. ?-Receptors.- II. Mouse Vas Deferens.- 1. ?-Receptors.- 2. ?-Receptors.- 3. ?-Receptors.- III. Other Vasa Deferentia.- 1. Rat Vas Deferens.- 2. Hamster Vas Deferens.- 3. Rabbit Vas Deferens.- D. Conclusions.- References.- 5 Anatomical Distribution of Opioid Receptors in Mammalians: An Overview.- A. Introduction.- B. Anatomical Distributions.- I. ?-Receptors.- II. ?-Receptors.- III. ?-Receptors.- IV. Anatomical Conclusions.- C. Multiple ?-Receptor Subtypes.- D. Nigrostriatal and Mesolimbic Dopamine Systems as Models for Opioid Peptide and Receptor Interactions.- I. Conclusions.- E. Future Directions.- References.- 6 Opioid Receptor Regulation.- A. Introduction.- B. Regulation of Opioid Receptors in the Adult Brain by Chronically Administered Opioid Agonists and Antagonists.- I. Chronic Administration of Opioid Agonists In Vivo.- II. Chronic Administration of Agonists to Cells Grown in Culture.- III. Chronic Administration of Opioid Antagonists.- C. Regulation of Opioid Receptors by Other Drugs or Specific Brain Lesions.- D. Regulation of Opioid Receptor and Peptide Gene Expression in Embryonic and Neonatal Brain.- I. Effects of Chronic Opioid Administration on Opioid Receptor Expression.- 1. Perinatal Treatment.- 2. Postnatal Treatment.- II. Effects of Chronic Opioid Administration on Opioid Peptide Expression.- References.- 7 Multiple Opioid Receptors and Presynaptic Modulation of Neurotransmitter Release in the Brain.- A. Introduction.- B. Modulation of Noradrenaline Release.- C. Modulation of Acetylcholine Release.- D. Modulation of Dopamine Release.- E. Modulation of the Release of Other Neurotransmitters.- F. Conclusions.- References.- 8 Opioid Receptor-G Protein Interactions: Acute and Chronic Effects of Opioids.- A. Introduction.- B. Effects of Guanine Nucleotides on Ligand Binding to Opioid Receptors.- I. Opioid ?- and ?-Receptors Are Funtionally Linked to Guanine Nucleotide Binding Proteins.- 1. Guanine Nucleotides Lower Agnonist Affinity at ?- and ?-Receptors.- 2. Guanine Nucleotides Increase Agonist Dissociation Rates.- 3. Guanine Nucleotide Effects on Equilibrium Binding of Opioids.- 4. Sodium Regulates Agonist Affinity at ?- and ?-Receptors.- 5. Stimulation of GTPase Activity by Activation of ?- and ?-Receptors.- II. Evidence for ?-Receptor Interactions with G Proteins.- 1. Effects of Guanine Nucleotides on Agonist Binding at ?1-Sites.- 2. Effects of Guanine Nucleotides on Binding at ?2-Sites.- III. Stimulatory Effects of Opioids: Possible Interactions of Opioid Receptors with Gs.- C. Cellular Consequences of Sustained Exposure to Opiate Drugs.- I. Characteristics of Opioid Tolerance and Dependence.- II. Changes in the Number of Opioid Receptors Following Sustained Exposure to High Concentrations of Opiate Drugs.- 1. In Vitro Studies Employing Tissue Culture.- 2. Effects of Chronic Opioid Treatment in Brain.- 3. Effects of Chronic Treatment with ?-Agonists.- 4. Mechanisms Implicated in Changes in Receptor Site Density.- III. Chronic Opioid Treatment Uncouples Opioid Receptors from Their Associated G Proteins.- 1. Receptor Desensitization ?- and ?-Receptors.- 2. Mechanisms Implicated in Receptor Desensitization.- IV. Sustained Opioid Exposure Induces Changes in the Cellular Concentrations of Some G Proteins.- 1. Neuroblastoma X Glioma (NG 108-15) Hybrid Cells.- 2. Guinea Pig Ileum Myenteric Plexus.- 3. Central Nervous System.- 4. Agonist Regulation of G Protein Levels.- V. Effector System Function May Be Enhanced After Sustained Opiate Drug Treatment.- 1. Guinea Pig Ileum Myenteric Plexus.- 2. Neuroblastoma X Glioma (NG 108-15) Hybrid Cells.- 3. Dorsal Root Ganglion-Spinal Cord Cultures.- 4. Locus Ceruleus.- 5. Summary.- VI. Summary: G Proteins and Opioid Tolerance and Dependence.- References.- 9 Opioid Receptor-Coupled Second Messenger Systems.- A. Introduction.- B. G Protein Coupling to Receptors.- I. General G Protein Structure and Function.- II. Opioid Receptors Are Coupled to G Proteins.- C. Opioid-Inhibited Adenylyl Cyclase.- I. Acute Effects of Opioid Agonists on Adenylyl Cyclase in Transformed Cell Lines.- II. Acute Effects of Opioid Agonists on Adenylyl Cyclase in Brain.- III. Chronic Effects of Opioid Agonists.- IV. Biological Roles for Opioid-Inhibited Adenylyl Cyclase.- D. Other Second Messenger Systems.- I. Stimulation of Adenylyl Cyclase.- II. Cyclic GMP.- III. Phosphatidylinositol Turnover and Effects on Membrane Lipids.- IV. Opioid-Dependent Protein Phosphorylation.- E. Conclusions.- References.- 10 Allosteric Coupling Among Opioid Receptors: Evidence for an Opioid Receptor Complex.- A. Introduction.- B. Evidence for a ?-?-Opioid Receptor Complex.- I. Ligand-Binding Data.- 1. Evidence that ?-Ligands Noncompetitively Inhibit ?-Receptor Binding.- 2. Evidence that ?-Ligands Noncompetitively Inhibit ?-Receptor Binding.- II. ?-Agonist - ?-Agonist Interactions.- 1. Early Studies: Analgesia Model.- 2. More Recent Studies: Analgesia Model.- III. ?-Antagonist - ?-Antagonist Interactions.- IV. Linkage Studies.- C. Evidence for a ?-Binding Site Associated with the ?-?-Opioid Receptor Complex.- I. In Vitro, Electrophysiological, Anatomical, and Biochemical Evidence for a ?-?-Opioid Receptor Complex.- D. Conclusions.- References.- Section B: Chemistry of Opioids with Alkaloid Structure.- 11 Chemistry of Nonpeptide Opioids.- A. Introduction.- B. Biosynthesis of Morphine, Codeine, and Thebaine.- C. Morphine and Its Companions.- D. Transformation Products of Thebaine.- E. Morphinans.- F. Diene Adducts Derived from Thebaine.- G. 6, 7-Benzomorphans.- H. Piperidine-Based Opioids.- I. Ethylene Diamines.- J. Acyclic Opioids.- K. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 12 Selective Nonpeptide Opioid Antagonists.- A. Introduction.- B. Receptor Selectivity.- C. ?-Selective Opioid Antagonists.- D. ?-Selective Opioid Antagonists.- E. ?-Selective Opioid Antagonists.- References.- 13 Presence of Endogenous Opiate Alkaloids in Mammalian Tissues.- A. Introduction.- B. Technical Principles Used in the Isolation of Alkaloid Compounds from Animal Tissue.- C. Identification of Endogenous Opiate Alkaloids in Mammalian Tissue.- D. Biosynthesis of Mammalian Morphine.- E. Regulation of Endogenous Morphine and Search for a Physiological Role.- References.- Section C: Opioid Peptides.- 14 Regulation of Opioid Peptide Gene Expression.- A. Introduction.- B. Structure and Regulatory Elements of the Opioid Peptide Genes.- I. Proopiomelanocortin.- II. Proenkephalin.- III. Prodynorphin.- C. Gene Regulation.- I. Proopiomelanocortin.- 1. Adenohypophysis.- 2. Intermediate Pituitary.- 3. Hypothalamus.- 4. Peripheral Tissues.- 5. Tumors.- II. Proenkephalin.- 1. Striatum.- 2. Hypothalamus.- 3. Hippocampus and Cortex.- 4. Spinal Cord and Lower Brainstem.- 5. Pituitary.- 6. Adrenal Medulla.- 7. Heart.- 8. Gonads.- 9. Immune System.- 10. Cell Lines.- III. Prodynorphin.- 1. Hypothalamus.- 2. Striatum.- 3. Hippocampus.- 4. Spinal Cord.- 5. Pituitary.- 6. Peripheral Tissues.- D. Summary.- References.- 15 Regulation of Pituitary Proopiomelanocortin Gene Expression.- A. Introduction.- I. The POMC Gene.- II. Intracellular Processes Regulating POMC Secretion.- B. Proopiomelanocortin mRNA Levels in Pituitary.- I. Whole Animal Studies.- 1. Adrenalectomy.- 2. Hypothalamic Factors.- 3. Intermediate Lobe POMC mRNA Levels.- II. In Vitro Systems.- 1. Glucocorticoids.- 2. cAMP- and Calcium-Dependent Processes.- III. Summary.- C. Proopiomelanocortin Gene Transcription.- I. Modulation of POMC hnRNA Levels.- II. Whole Animal Studies.- III. Primary and AtT20 Cell Culture.- IV. Summary.- D. Regulatory Elements in the POMC Gene.- I. Basal and Tissue-Specific Promoter Elements.- II. Glucocorticoid Regulatory Elements.- III. Promoter Elements and Second Messenger Pathways.- IV. Summary.- E. Conclusions.- References.- 16 Molecular Mechanisms in Proenkephalin Gene Regulation.- A. Introduction.- B. Cellular Signaling Pathways Mediating PENK Gene Induction.- I. Membrane Associated Events and Second Messengers.- 1. Regulation of PENK Gene Expression by Electrical Activity and Ca2+ Metabolism in Excitable Cells.- 2. Cyclic AMP as a Regulator of PENK Gene Expression.- 3. Phosphoinositide Hydrolysis and PENK Gene Regulation.- II. Regulation of PENK Gene Expression by Third Messengers.- C. Mechanisms of PENK Gene Transcriptional Regulation.- I. Transcriptional Regulation of the Endogenous PENK Gene.- II. Gene Transfer Approach.- III. DNA-Responsive Elements.- D. Summary.- References.- 17 Proopiomelanocortin Biosynthesis, Processing and Secretion: Functional Implications.- A. Introduction.- B. Tissue-Specific Processing.- I. Anterior Lobe.- II. Intermediate Lobe.- III. Brain.- C. Proopiomelanocortin Processing and Modifying Enzymes.- D. Possible Functional Significance of Posttranslational Modifications to POMC-Derived Peptides.- I. Anterior Lobe.- II. Intermediate Lobe.- III. Brain.- 1. Central Analgesia, Tolerance and Dependence.- 2. Reinforcement.- 3. Autonomic Functions.- IV. Immune System.- E. Conclusion.- References.- 18 Biosynthesis of Enkephalins and Proenkephalin-Derived Peptides.- A. Introduction.- B. History.- C. Enkephalin Biosynthesis in the Adrenal Medulla.- D. Molecular Biology.- E. Enkephalin Biosynthesis in the CNS.- F. Synenkephalin.- G. Molecular Evolution of Proenkephalin.- H. Extraneuronal Proenkephalin.- I. Reproductive Tissue.- II. Glial Cells.- III. Immune System.- I. Processing of Proenkephalin.- J. Regulation.- K. Conclusion.- References.- 19 Prodynorphin Biosynthesis and Posttranslational Processing.- A. History of Dynorphin.- B. Posttranslational Processing Signals.- C. Prodynorphin Biosynthesis and Processing in Peripheral Tissues.- D. Processing Pathway of Prodynorphin.- E. Functional Significance of Prodynorphin Peptide Processing.- I. Striatonigral System.- II. Other Systems.- F. Conclusions.- References.- 20 Anatomy and Function of the Endogenous Opioid Systems.- A. Introduction.- B. Immunocytochemical Anatomy of Opioid Systems.- I. Proopiomelanocortin.- II. Proenkephalin.- III. Prodynorphin.- C. In Situ Hybridization Histochemical Studies.- I. Proopiomelanocortin mRNA.- II. Proenkephalin and Prodynorphin mRNA.- III. Expression of Opioids in Nonneuronal Cells.- D. Opioid Receptors and Functional Systems.- I. Problems in the Functional Analysis of Endogenous Opioid Systems.- II. Opioid Peptide-Receptor Relationships.- E. Functional Roles of Opioid Systems.- I. Endogenous Pain Control Systems.- II. Extrapyramidal Motor Systems.- References.- 21 Atypical Opioid Peptides.- A. Introduction.- I. Atypical Representatives of Natural Opioid Peptides (Atypical Natural Opioid Peptides).- II. Peptides with Indirect Opioid or Opioid Antagonist Activity.- B. Atypical Opioid Peptides.- I. Structure and Activity.- 1. ?-Casein Exorphins.- 2. ?-Casomorphins.- 3. ?-Casorphin, ?- and ?-Lactorphins.- 4. Hemorphins and Cytochrophins.- 5. Dermorphins and Deltorphins.- II. Origin and Destination.- 1. Milk Protein-Derived Opioid Peptides.- 2. Hemoglobin- or Cytochrome b-Derived Opioid Peptides.- 3. Amphibian Skin Protein-Derived Opioid Peptides.- C. Opioid Antagonists Sharing Characteristics with Atypical Opioid Peptides.- I. Structure and Activity.- 1. Casoxins.- 2. Lactoferroxins.- II. Origin and Destination.- D. Atypical Opioid Peptide Analogues with Agonist or Antagonist Activity.- I. Agonists.- 1. ?-Selective Opioid Receptor Ligands.- 2. ?-Selective Opioid Receptor Ligands.- II. Antagonists.- E. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 22 Opioid Peptide Processing Enzymes.- A. Introduction.- B. Enzymes in the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus.- I. Signal Peptidase.- II. Glycosylation, Sulfation, and Phosphorylation.- C. Enzymes in the Secretory Granules.- I. Endopeptidases Selective for Paired Basic Residues.- II. Opioid Peptide Processing Endopeptidases Selective for Single Basic Residues.- III. Carboxypeptidase E.- IV. Aminopeptidase B-Like Enzyme.- V. Amidation.- VI. Acetylation.- D. Extracellular Opioid Peptide Processing Enzymes.- References.- 23 Peptidase Inactivation of Enkephalins: Design of Inhibitors and Biochemical, Pharmacological and Clinical Applications.- A. Introduction.- B. Enkephalin Degrading Enzymes.- I. Metabolism of Opioid Peptides.- II. Substrate Specificity of NEP and APN.- III. Assays of NEP and APN Activities.- C. Structure and Molecular Biology of NEP.- I. Structure of NEP.- II. Human NEP (CALLA) Gene.- D. Localization of Neutral Endopeptidase 24.11.- I. Central Nervous System.- II. Localization of NEP in Peripheral Tissues.- III. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Enkephalin Degradation by NEP and APN.- E. Inhibitor Design and Synthesis.- I. Design of Selective and Mixed Inhibitors of Neutral Endopeptidase 24.11 and Aminopeptidase N.- II. Thiol Inhibitors.- III. Carboxyl Inhibitors.- IV. Hydroxamic Acids and Derivatives.- V. Phosphorus-Containing Inhibitors.- VI. Aminopeptidase-N and Dipeptidyl Peptidase Inhibitors.- VII. Development of Mixed Inhibitors of Enkephalin-Degrading Enzymes.- F. Pharmacological Studies of Enkephalin-Degrading-Enzyme Inhibitors.- I. Inhibitor-Induced Analgesia.- II. Inhibitor-Induced Spinal Antinociception.- III. Peptidase Inhibitors in Chronic Pain.- IV. Tolerance, Dependence, and Side Effects of Selective and Mixed Inhibitors of NEP and APN.- V. Gastrointestinal Effects.- VI. Role of Neutral Endopeptidase-24.11 in Airways.- VII. Behavioral Effects of Inhibitors.- G. Inhibition of NEP Inactivation of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide: Pharmacological and Clinical Implications.- H. Clinical Applications of Selective and Mixed Zn Metallopeptidase Inhibitors.- References.- 24 Coexistence of Opioid Peptides with Other Neurotransmitters.- A. Principles.- I. Introduction.- II. Subcellular Features.- 1. Classical Neurotransmitters and Small Synaptic Vesicles.- 2. Neuropeptides and Large Granular Vesicles.- III. Methods for Establishing Coexistence.- B. Coexistence Within Areas of the Nervous System.- I. Retina.- II. Telencephalon.- III. Diencephalon.- IV. Mesencephalon.- V. Pons and Medulla.- VI. Cerebellum.- VII. Spinal Cord.- VIII. Peripheral Nervous System.- 1. Primary Afferent Neurons.- 2. Autonomic Ganglion Cells and Their Fibers.- 3. Adrenal Medulla.- 4. Enteric Nervous System.- C. Implications.- I. Patterns of Expression.- II. Pharmacology and Physiology.- References.- 25 Interrelationships of Opioid, Dopaminergic, Cholinergic and GABAergic Pathways in the Central Nervous System.- A. Introduction.- B. Cholinergic Systems.- I. Introduction.- II. Septohippocampal Cholinergic Pathway.- III. Nucleus Basalis-Cortical Cholinergic Pathway.- C. Dopaminergic Pathways.- I. Introduction.- II. Nigrostriatal Pathway.- III. Mesolimbic Pathways.- IV. Mesocortical Pathways.- D. GABAergic Pathways.- E. Striatal Opioid Peptide Gene Expression.- I. Introduction.- II. Met- Enkephalin.- III. Dynorphin.- F. Conclusions.- References.- 26 Selectivity of Ligands for Opioid Receptors.- A. Introduction.- B. Methods Used to Determine the Selectivity of Opioid Compounds.- I. Radioreceptor Binding Assays.- II. Bioassays.- C. Selectivity of Endogenous Opioid Peptides.- I. Proenkephalin-Derived Peptides.- 1. Activity in Binding Assays.- 2. Activity in Bioassays.- II. Prodynorphin-Derived Peptides.- 1. Activity in Binding Assays.- 2. Activity in Bioassays.- III. Proopiomelanocortin-Derived Peptides.- 1. Activity in Binding Assays.- 2. Activity in Bioassays.- IV. Dermorphin and Deltorphins.- 1. Activity in Binding Assays.- 2. Activity in Bioassays.- D. Selectivity of Nonendogenous Opioid Compounds.- I. Compounds with a Preference for the ?-Binding Site.- 1. Activity in Binding Assays.- 2. Agonist Activity in Bioassays.- 3. Antagonist Activity in Bioassays.- II. Compounds with a Preference for the ?-Binding Site.- 1. Activity in Binding Assays.- 2. Agonist Activity in Bioassays.- 3. Antagonist Activity in Bioassays.- III. Compounds with a Preference for the ?-Binding Site.- 1. Activity in Binding Assays.- 2. Agonist Activity in Bioassays.- 3. Antagonist Activity in Bioassays.- References.- 27 Development of Receptor-Selective Opioid Peptide Analogs as Pharmacologic Tools and as Potential Drugs.- A. Introduction.- B. Determination of Receptor Selectivity.- C. Development of ?-, ?-, and ?-Receptor-Selective Opioid Peptide Analogs with Agonist Properties.- I. ?-Selective Agonists.- 1. Linear Opioid Peptide Analogs.- 2. Opioid Peptide Dimers.- 3. Cyclic Opioid Peptide Analogs.- II. ?-Selective Agonists.- 1. Linear Opioid Peptide Analogs.- 2. Opioid Peptide Dimers.- 3. Cyclic Opioid Peptide Analogs.- III. ?-Selective Agonists.- D. Selective Opioid Peptide Analogs with Antagonist Properties.- E. Irreversible Opioid Receptor Peptide Ligands.- I. Chemical Affinity Labels.- II. Photoaffinity Labels.- F. Selective Opioid Peptide Analogs as Drug Candidates.- G. Conclusions.- References.- 28 Ontogeny of Mammalian Opioid Systems.- A. Introduction.- B. Embryological Considerations.- C. Opioid Gene Activation.- I. Proopiomelanocortin.- 1. Brain.- 2. Pituitary.- 3. Testis.- 4. Placenta.- II. Enkephalin.- 1. Brain (Striatal).- 2. Glia.- 3. Fetal Mesoderm.- III. Dynorphin.- D. Ontogeny of Opioid Precursor Processing.- I. Proopiomelanocortin.- 1. Immunocytochemical Analyses.- 2. Biochemical Analyses.- II. Dynorphin.- E. Ontogeny of Regulated Release.- I. Secretory Granules, Regulators of POMC Secretion and the Portal System.- II. Functional Receptors for Secretagogues.- F. Function.- I. Ontogeny of Opioid Receptors.- II. Putative Role(s) of Opioid Peptides in Developmental Processes.- G. Prospectus.- References.- Section D: Neurophysiology.- 29 Opioids and Sensory Processing in the Central Nervous System.- A. Introduction.- B. Opioids and the Spinal Cord.- I. Spinal Processing of Nociceptive Information.- II. Systemic Administration of Opiates and the Responses of Spinal Neurones.- 1. Neuronal Types.- 2. Responses to Peripheral Stimuli.- III. Localized Administration of Opioids.- 1. ?-Receptor-Preferring Ligands.- 2. ?-Receptor-Preferring Ligands.- 3. ?-Receptor-Preferring Ligands.- IV. Functional Consequences of Opioid Receptor Activation to Spinal Sensory Processing.- 1. Opioid Receptors and the Central Terminals of Nociceptors.- 2. Receptors on the Somata and Processes of Spinal Neurones.- 3. Receptors and Supraspinal Fibres.- V. Opiates and Descending Inhibition.- VI. Physiological Roles of Opioid Peptides in Sensory Processing.- 1. Spinal Release of Opioid Peptides.- 2. Tonic Opioidergic Inhibition.- 3. Phasic Opioidergic Inhibition.- C. Thalamus and Cerebral Cortex.- I. Thalamus.- 1. Ventrobasal Nuclei.- 2. Medial and Dorsal Thalamic Nuclei.- II. Cerebral Cortex.- D. Deficits in Knowledge and Prospects for Future Research.- References.- 30 Opioid Actions on Membrane Ion Channels.- A. Introduction.- B. Calcium Channels.- I. Types of Calcium Channels.- II. ?-Receptors.- III. ?-Receptors.- IV. ?-Receptors.- V. Unclassified Receptors.- VI. Experiments on Action Potential Duration.- VII. Type of Calcium Current Inhibited.- VIII. Mechanism of Opioid Action.- 1. Role of G Proteins.- 2. Time Course of Agonist Action.- 3. Single Channel Studies.- 4. Voltage Dependence of Agonist Action?.- IX. Other Receptors That Reduce Calcium Currents.- X. Calcium Current Inhibition and Presynaptic Inhibition.- C. Potassium Channels.- I. Types of Potassium Channels.- II. ?-Receptors.- III. ?-Receptors.- IV. Other Receptors.- V. Experiments on Action Potential Duration.- VI. Hyperpolarization and Inhibition of Firing.- VII. Type of Potassium Current Increased.- VIII. Mechanism of Opioid Action.- 1. Role of G Proteins.- 2. Time Course of Action.- 3. Single Channel Studies.- IX. Other Receptors That Increase Potassium Conductance.- X. Potassium Conductance Increase and Presynaptic Inhibition.- D. Other Ion Channels.- E. Changes in Tolerance and Dependence.- F. Concluding Remarks.- References.


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Animals in the First World War - Neil R. Storey

INTRODUCTION

ANIMALS have been involved in warfare as long as man could ride a horse into battle or train a dog to attack. Early recorded history has horses in action carrying mounted troops and towing chariots in ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Even in this early period the warhorse became iconic in statues, jewellery, coins and mosaics, and was eulogised in script. One of the earliest recorded animals distinguished for its long, brave and noble performance both on campaign and in battle was Bucephalus, the warhorse of Alexander the Great, which, despite being mortally wounded, carried his master out of the fray unscathed at the Battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC. Alexander ensured his loyal horse was buried with full military honours and was even depicted on coins. Empire-building saw troops move over thousands of miles most enduring is the true story of how Hannibal fought and crossed the Alps with elephants and 4,000 horsemen during the Second Punic War in 218 BC. In Britannia the Iceni tribe of East Anglia also venerated their horses in the early decades of the new millennium they were depicted on their coinage and were led in battle against the Romans by Queen Boudicca in her horse-drawn chariot in AD 60. Indeed, for the majority of the next 1,000 years, campaigns, crusades, battles and wars were conducted on horseback – from the mounted cavalry of William the Conqueror in 1066 to Cromwell’s ‘Ironsides’ with their ‘lobster-tailed’ helmets and Prince Rupert’s cavalry during the English Civil War (1642–51).

Warfare changed after the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815. No longer was Britain embroiled in a costly European war, and the Industrial Revolution enabled the development and mass production of better firearms and weaponry. Britain became wealthy and powerful as it explored the world for gold, diamonds, minerals and resources, laying claim to them in the name of the Queen. Despite all this modernisation, steam trains and wheeled vehicles were still not practical modes of transport for soldiers wanting to cross rugged and uncharted terrain it still fell to horses, ponies and mules to carry burdens, pull the supply wagons and bravely carry the cavalrymen into action as Britain fought its ‘small wars’ to acquire, occupy and defend the Empire.

Sadly, although soldiers would care for their mounts – for often their lives depended upon them – military horses were, in general, treated very much as a means to an end until the latter part of the nineteenth century. At this point, public concern for those less fortunate – be they human or animal – was seen as a worthy, Christian and benevolent attitude, particularly amongst those who had benefited from the 1870 Education Act, in which the focus was not only the ‘three Rs’ but also the importance of national pride and duty to God, Queen and country.

When the British Empire was at its military apogee the works of artists such as Lady Butler (Elizabeth Southerden Thompson) and Richard Caton Woodville evocatively captured the notable battles and engagement of the British Army. New technological developments meant that prints of their works were affordable to far greater numbers than ever before, and the homes of the patriotic and sentimental Victorians could not be without a Butler or Woodville for their wall. Prints and line illustrations of such actions or deeds of derring-do appeared in all manner of magazines, periodicals and books as visuals to inspire patriotic fervour and pride in the British Empire.

One of the first images to capture the public’s imagination in this genre was Lady Butler’s Remnants of an Army, depicting William Brydon, an assistant surgeon in the Bengal Army, on his horse. Both are clearly battle-worn and desperately exhausted as they approach the gates of Jalalabad, for they were the first


Watch the video: Thea Lindauer u0026 The One Thousand Children: Their Stories American Kindertransport


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