Farm Security Administration

Farm Security Administration

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On 9th March 1933, the new president, Franklin D. Roosevelt called a special session of Congress. He told the members that unemployment could only be solved "by direct recruiting by the Government itself." For the next three months, Roosevelt proposed, and Congress passed, a series of important bills that attempted to deal with the problem of unemployment. The special session of Congress became known as the Hundred Days and provided the basis for Roosevelt's New Deal.

This included the Farm Security Administration (FSA) that was established in 1935 that had a set of responsibilities that included support for small farmers and the refurbishment of land and communities ruined by the Depression.

Roy Stryker was appointed to organize a photographic collection of the FSA work. To carry out he employed a small group of photographers that included Esther Bubley, Marjory Collins, Mary Post Wolcott, Arthur Rothstein, Walker Evans, Russell Lee, Jack Delano, Gordon Parks, Charlotte Brooks, John Vachon, Carl Mydans, Dorothea Lange and Ben Shahn.

In 1943 Stryker was asked to organize the Standard Oil project. Photographers who took part in this attempt to document the lives of workers in the oil industry included Russell Lee, Gordon Parks, Esther Bubley and John Vachon.

Farm Security Administration - History

Unlike the staff of the Federal Writers' Project, which was based in individual states and comprised of local residents, the Farm Security Administration photographers were an itinerant group. One of the organizational difficulties of the project was the fact that its photographers were so often spread around the far reaches of the country. Stryker maintained close contact with them while they were in the field, in order to keep them abreast of project priorities and the other photographers' assignments, to handle technical difficulties, and to facilitate the transfer of materials.

Most of their letters were directed to his home address, since it took a while for mail to be processed through the bureaucratic machine, though they did rely on telegrams and other, quicker forms of communication when necessary.

It is clear from Stryker and Marion Post Wolcott's correspondence how much they collaborated in determining the agenda of her trips. One also gets a great sense of how alienating it was to be in the field alone, and how keeping in close contact with the staff in Washington could feel sometimes like the photographer's only anchor. Though they had their fair share of bureaucratic communication, Stryker and Post Wolcott had some lively exchanges. There can be no doubt that they were two dynamic and strong willed individuals:

- From Post Wolcott to Stryker, January 27, 1940, Telegram. Surely one of the more bizarre and amusing historical sources I've encountered.

- From Stryker to Post Wolcott, January 13th, 1939. She's in Belle Glade, he's in Washington. This letter has been widely quoted because of his controversial instructions to her on how she should dress in the "wilds of the South."

- From Post Wolcott to Stryker, circa January 18th, 1939. She writes back, launching into a good-natured (mostly) response to his lecture.

Juliet Gorman, May 2001

If you find Marion Post Wolcott's voice intriguing (as I did), you might want to familiarize yourself with her biography.

If you've done that already, have you covered the critical ground of thinking about what documentary photography meant specifically in the 1930s?

When you are done working through the material on the history of the FSA, critical perspectives to bring to FSA photography, and some context on Marion Post Wolcott's life, you should move on to reflections about narrative in FSA photography.

The Art of History: The Farm Security Administration

When the Farm Security Administration (FSA), part of the New Deal, began its photography program in 1935, the intent was not to create art, but to depict the challenges of rural poverty by "introducing America to Americans." Yet despite their historical significance and the propaganda-like nature of some of the images, most of the photographs that came out of the FSA's nine-year photography program are seen today as art. Since requests have been made for FSA photographers Dorothea Lange and Jack Delano, today's post will feature the FSA's three most famous photographers: Lange, Delano, and Walker Evans.

Jack Delano (1914-1997)

Delano was one of the FSA's most prolific photographers—at least 5,000 of his photographs have survived. But Delano was also a skilled musician (on the viola) and composer. Throughout his school years, he studied viola, composition, and solfeggio alongside graphic art and photography. During an FSA trip to Puerto Rico in 1941, he fell in love with the area and returned five years later to settle there. He then composed orchestral pieces for the Puerto Rico Symphony Orchestra, ballets for Ballet Infantil de Gilda Navarra and Ballets de San Juan, and numerous other chamber, choral, and vocal pieces. He was also a producer and composer for films for the Community Division of the Department of Public Education. (Yesterday would have been his 98th birthday.)
Shown: An "open all night" gas station in Durham, North Carolina. (1940)

Walker Evans (1903-1975)

Evans is probably the FSA photographer most recognized for his artistic ability. Several major museums have put on retrospectives and exhibitions of his work, including one exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art during his last year working for the FSA. The 1938 exhibition, "Walker Evans: American Photographs," was the first exhibition in the museum to be devoted to the work of a single photographer. Later that same year, he also began taking hidden camera photos on the New York subway. (The camera was hidden in his coat.) All of his work, with the exception of that done for the FSA, was given to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1994. Fun fact: Evans got to know Ernest Hemingway while he was on a non-FSA assignment in Cuba in 1933.
Shown: Roadside stand near Birmingham, Alabama. (1936)

Dorothea Lange (1895-1965)

Lange may have the longest lasting legacy of the FSA photographers. She co-founded Aperture magazine, and the entire Aperture Foundation, in 1952. (Ansel Adams was another co-founder.) In 1914, Lange had been awarded the highly prestigious Guggenheim Fellowship, but she gave it up to record the relocation of Japanese-Americans after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Although she was supposedly on assignment for the civilian War Relocation Authority, the Army considered her photographs so critical that they impounded them.
Shown: Carrot pullers from Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri and Mexico. Coachella Valley, California. (1937)

What is the Farm Security Administration? (with pictures)

The Farm Security Administration was a Depression-era agency in the United States providing a variety of support programs to poor, rural farmers. The agency initially was known as the Resettlement Administration because of its primary function of moving farm families off of small, unproductive, unprofitable farms and resetting them in communities of similar farm families working large tracts of government-owned land. The resettlement mission was abandoned in the late 1930s as a result of political opposition, but the agency has survived to this day with other duties as the Farmers Home Administration.

In the Great Depression, many tenant farmers and sharecroppers could not produce enough crops to sell at market value and sustain their livelihoods. Too many farmers were chasing too few buyers for their crops. The Dust Bowl contributed to this as well, as both a long drought and soil erosion resulting from poor farming techniques reduced farm productivity. To combat both problems, the government of President Franklin D. Roosevelt desired to educate the small farmers on modern farming techniques and reduce the overall number of farmers in the nation.

The federal government formed the Resettlement Administration in 1935 as part of the New Deal. Later that year, the Resettlement Administration was renamed the Farm Security Administration. The first task of the Farm Security Administration, or FSA, involved creating large, government-owned farms by buying the small tracts of struggling farmers who had productive land but could not make a living on it. The FSA relocated displaced farm families, and the families moved from unproductive farms to camps near the large tracts. There they received education in modern farm techniques and were paid to work the government land.

An increasing number of conservative members of Congress took issue with what they believed was the Farm Security Administration's Soviet-style collectivization of agriculture. At the same time, the displaced farmers argued for the right to buy small farms of their own and asked for government assistance. The FSA’s mission shifted as a result to providing low-interest loans that allowed small farmers to purchase their own tracts of land.

The Farm Security Administration (FSA)

The Resettlement Administration was a New Deal agency that later became the Farm Security Administration (FSA). The FSA had many programs involving agricultural issues and dealt directly with the plight of farmers who were victims of the Dust Bowl disaster. The FSA had a photography division that set out to document the Depression and the plight of thousands of victims. Some of the greatest photographers of the time, including Dorthea Lange, whose photographs of California’s migrants have become iconic images of the Depression, photographed migrant farm laborers all over the west coast. There are well over 100,000 FSA photographs at the Library of Congress.

The FSA also set up approximately 20 experimental migrant camps, mostly in California. These camps, which are referenced in the section on the Dust Bowl, were self-sufficient and were subject to rules made and enforced by the camp residents. They were clean and safe and offered a welcome respite for the migrants, who often were subject to cruel law enforcement officers and unscrupulous farmers who provided degrading and wretched living quarters for their workers. ( The following report from a FSA worker describes the living arrangements at one of the California camps:

…[The camp] contained 145 families (650 persons). The camp consists of 106 metal shelters (steel, painted with an aluminum paint said to cut off the sun’s rays perceptibly), 98 tents, and 20 adobes. At the peak of the cotton picking the camp population rises to 250 families, or 1200 persons. (Average family is 4.2 persons, said to be below the average for the nation). The adobes are assigned on a selective basis. The occupant must show a record of 6 months employment in agriculture during preceding year. The adobes are permanent homestead — including an acre of ground we saw flower gardens, etc. Rent is $8.25 per month. Rent for the shelters or tent platforms is $.25 per week. The Comm. which chooses the residents of the adobes is a camp comm. The occupants of the adobes are “permanent” — the occupants of the tents and shelters may not stay in the camp for more than a year – although they may move back after having lived elsewhere for a while.

Little Rag Houses written by Jack Bryant (1940) refers to the tents that migrants lived in at FSA camps. A few camps had actual cabins but most used tents for the residents. The song reflects the attitude embraced by many people that they would be willing to move out of the relative comfort and safety of a government run camp to find gainful work. This song utilizes the tune of “I Don’t Want Your Greenback Dollar” and is sung by the 198 String Band. The 198 String Band hails from Buffalo, NY and is comprised of Tom Naples (guitar, banjo, autoharp), Peggy Milliron (guitar and vocals), and Mike Frisch (fiddle, guitar, vocals). Tom Naples traveled the route of the Dust Bowl migrations and interviewed former migrant camp residents. (

I don’t want your little rag houses
I don’t want your navy beans
All I want is a greenback dollar
For to buy some gasoline.

The scenery here is gettin’ rusty
I’ll go further up the line
Where the fields are green and purty
It will satisfy my mind

We don’t want to be a burden
On the people of this land
We just want to earn our money
And you people know we can.

So goodbye my friends and neighbors
We are on the tramp
Many thanks to all officials
Of this migratory camp

So goodbye my friends and neighbors
We are on the tramp
Many thanks to all officials
Of this migratory camp

I don’t want your little rag houses
I don’t want your navy beans
All I want is a greenback dollar
For to buy some gasoline.

Government Camp Song offers a description of camp life from the mouths of two 12-year-old female residents, Mary Campbell and Margaret Treat. The song was recorded in August 1941 by FSA employees, Charles L. Todd and Robert Sonkin, who were charged with documenting the conditions in which the migrants lived. Note the reference to “rag house home.” ( This audio is accompanied by a vivid slide show of the conditions in the camps.

Over here in the government camp
That’s where we get our government stamps
Over in that little rag house home

Over in the isolation that where we get our vaccination
Over in that little rag house home

Over in Unit One, that’s where the people have their fun
Over in that little rag house home

Over in Unit Two, that’s where people go without their shoes
Over in that little rag house home

Over in Unit Three, that’s were the people have jamborees
Over in that little rag house home

Over in Unit Four, people don’t live there anymore
Over in that little rag house home

Over in Unit Five, people don’t act like they’re alive
Over in that little rag house home

Over in Unit Six, that’s where people want no tricks
Over in that little rag house home

Over in the garden homes, that’s where people like to roam
Over in their little garden home

Over at the recreation, that’s where the people do new creation
Over in that little rag house home

Over at the library, that’s where the people like to tarry
Over in that little rag house home

Over at the sewing room, it needs a needle and a broom
Over in that little rag house home

Over at the welfare, it sure gets to the people there
Over in that little rag house home

Over at the reservoir, it needs be cleaned by man and boy
Over in that little rag house home

Over at the center building, that where they have a nurse for the little children
Over in that little rag house home

Over at the boxing ring, that’s where the people like to shout and sing
Over in that little rag house home

Over where we cook and can, we hope some day to get a man
Over in that little rag house home

We are proud of the government camp
That’s where we get our government stamps

Over by that little rag house home

Mary Sullivan’s ballad A Traveler’s Line, speaks of hardship, disappointment, and a deep desire to return home. It was written and sung by Mary Sullivan and recorded at a FSA Camp in 1940. (

As I was walking one morning
I spied a man old and gray,
A story to share with someone
So these words to me he did say.

For two long years now I have wandered
Away from loved ones at home.
It seemed that starvation was on us
And then we decided to roam.

At first we camped out on the prairie,
Then state to state we did try
To find work enough for provisions
But it seemed there was no use to try.

I finally wound up in a chapter
In an FSA camp by the way.
A man walked up and told me
You can sign for a grant check today.

Then groceries brought in by the armfuls
The children no longer did sigh.
The camp’s such a nice place to live in
The manager so nice in reply.

So now you all heard my sad story,
And how we first ventured out.
The welfare will clothe all your families,
When you stop in a farm workers’ camp.

Farm Security Administration - History

The Information Division was responsible for standard public relations work supplying materials to the mass media and preparing visual displays for public educational programs (Carlebach and Provenzo 20). At the least, the photographs that Roy Stryker's photographers took in the field had to meet this institutional need. Just how the balance shifted from this purely bureaucratic purpose towards the loftier goal of "introducing America to Americans" (Stryker and Wood 9) is not entirely clear. Partly, it may have grown out the tension between the photographers' desires for artistic freedom and the institution's need for uncontroversial and effective uses of their funds. Amongst the photographers' letters to Stryker we find many references to these issues Marion Post Wolcott goes as far as to refer at one point to her bureaucratic obligation as "FSA cheesecake" (Hendrickson 154). Stryker, commenting on this tension, noted that "most of what the photographers had to do to stay on the payroll was routine stuff showing what a good job the agencies were doing out in the field." Beyond that, they were free to spend "a day here, a day there, to get what history has proved to be the guts of the project" (Stryker and Wood 14). What we can be sure of is that the larger documentary goal was not a part of the initial institutional vision.

Juliet Gorman, May 2001

In order to understand in part how photography came to dominate the PR materials that the Information Division produced, it is important to think about what visual media meant in the 1930s. Keep in mind, however, that there is only one more page left in this discussion.

Farm Security Administration - History

T he image of a worn, weather-beaten woman, a look of desperation on her face, two children leaning on her shoulders, an infant in her lap has become a photographic icon of the Great Depression in America. The photo was taken in March 1936 at a camp for seasonal agricultural workers 175 miles north of Los Angeles by Dorothea Lange. Lange was working for the Farm Security Administration as part of a team of photographers documenting the impact of federal programs in improving rural conditions.

Migrant Mother, 1936
Lange had just completed a month-long photographic assignment and was driving back home in a wind-driven rain when she came upon a sign for the camp. Something beckoned her to postpone her journey home and enter the camp. She was immediately drawn to the woman and took a series of six shots - the only photos she took that day. The woman was the mother of seven children and on the brink of starvation.

After returning home, Lange alerted the editor of a San Francisco newspaper to the plight of the workers at the camp, presenting him with two of her photos. The editor informed federal authorities and published an article that included Lange's images. As a result, the government rushed a shipment of 20,000 lbs. of food to the camp. The photos' wider impact included influencing John Steinbeck in the writing of his novel The Grapes of Wrath.

"I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet."

In 1960, Lange described her experience in an interview with the magazine Popular Photography. The photos that accompany the following account are captioned with Lange's field notes:

"It was raining, the camera bags were packed, and I had on the seat beside me in the car the results of my long trip, the box

"Nipomo, Calif. March 1936.
Migrant agricultural worker's family.
Seven hungry children and their
mother,aged 32. The father
is a native Californian."
containing all those rolls and packs of exposed film ready to mail back to Washington. It was a time of relief. Sixty-five miles an hour for seven hours would get me home to my family that night, and my eyes were glued to the wet and gleaming highway that stretched out ahead. I felt freed, for I could lift my mind off my job and think of home.

I was on my way and barely saw a crude sign with pointing arrow which flashed by at the side of the road, saying PEA-PICKERS CAMP. But out of the corner of my eye I did see it I didn't want to stop, and didn't. I didn't want to remember that I had seen it, so I drove on and ignored the summons. Then, accompanied by the rhythmic hum of the windshield wipers, arose an inner argument:

Dorothea, how about that camp back there? What is the situation back there?

Nobody could ask this of you, now could they?

To turn back certainly is not necessary. Haven't you plenty if negatives already on this subject? Isn't this just one more if the same? Besides, if you take a camera out in this rain, you're just asking for trouble. Now be reasonable, etc. etc., etc.

Having well convinced myself for 20 miles that I could continue on, I did the opposite. Almost without realizing what I was doing I made a U-turn on the empty highway. I went back those 20 miles and turned off the highway at that sign, PEA-PICKERS CAMP.

"Destitute in a pea pickers camp,
because of the failure of the early
pea crop. These people had just sold
their tent in order to buy food."
I was following instinct, not reason I drove into that wet and soggy camp and parked my car like a homing pigeon.

I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet. I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to her but I do remember she asked me no questions. I made five exposures, working closer and closer from the same direction. I did not ask her name or her history. She told me her age, that she was 32. She said that they had been living on frozen vegetables from the surrounding fields, and birds that the children killed. She had just sold the tires from her car to buy food. There she sat in that lean-to tent with her children huddled around her, and seemed to know that my pictures might help her, and so she helped me. There was a sort of equality about it.

The pea crop at Nipomo had frozen and there was no work for anybody. But I did not approach the tents and shelters of other stranded pea-pickers. It was not necessary I knew I had recorded the essence of my assignment."

Lange, Dorothea, "The Assignment I'll Never Forget: Migrant Mother," Popular Photography (February 1960) Curtis, James. Mind's Eye, Mind's Truth: FSA Photography Reconsidered. (1989).

Printable PDF Version

A wide variety of mass-produced consumer products became available in the 1920s, among them automobiles, household appliances, and processed foods. These goods, promoted with endless advertising campaigns, supplied middle class families with visible signs of higher incomes and new prosperity. The stock exchange in New York offered a barometer capable of measuring the new prosperity, and inspired average individuals to invest all they had in the high yields offered by money markets. Most often, Americans invested beyond their means, borrowing &ldquoon the margin.&rdquo Yet in the midst of this carefree prosperity, the Brookings Institution of Washington conducted a study that estimated that in 1929, sixty percent of families in the United States survived on a substandard income. Poverty existed in the rural South and urban North even in the booming 1920s.

When the US stock market crashed in October of 1929 the majority of South Carolinians had already been living with economic hardship for more than a decade. In the 1920s, the fortunes of the state economy were still indelibly tied to agricultural production and, despite a stabilization of cotton prices in the early portion of the decade, a steady decline begun in1926 continued until the price bottomed out at six cents per pound. Reduced production combined with recurring boll weevil infestation devastated the cotton economy. The total value of the crop dwindled from $307 million in 1920 to a mere $72 million in 1929. As farmers&rsquo incomes declined, so too did the state&rsquos banking system. In 1926 alone forty-five banks failed, due in large part to the plummeting values of agricultural lands that had previously served as loan collateral. Mortgage foreclosures, crop destruction, and low crop prices forced nearly a quarter of a million South Carolinians to leave the state by 1929. For the citizens who remained, times worsened as the Great Depression set in.

Federal relief programs implemented in the 1930s endeavored to create a basis for wide scale recovery, and in South Carolina these efforts centered on agriculture and the textile industry. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933) provided farmers with subsidies in exchange for leaving their crops unplanted. The desired effect was reduced product, increased demand, and eventually an increase in crop prices. Further New Deal initiatives inspired the development of the State Parks system and the construction of highways, bridges, schools, sewer systems, and, the largest project of all, the creation of a hydroelectric plant which provided electricity to areas beyond large cities.

These four photographs above, taken between 1937 and 1939, were part of a larger photographic project of the Farm Security Administration that existed well into the 1940s. The FSA, supervised by the Department of Agriculture, was part of the New Deal&rsquos attempt to understand and address the realities of rural poverty. Photographers captured the faces of rural South Carolinians their poverty is evidenced by their appearance and surroundings. These images were taken in the midst of recovery initiatives. The entry of the United States into World War II helped take the country out of the Depression, even though poverty continued to exist in many rural and isolated areas in South Carolina and elsewhere.


&ldquoA Sharecropper Boy.&rdquo Photograph. As reproduced in A South Carolina Album, 1936-1948, Constance B Schulz, editor. Columbia: The University of South Carolina Press, 1992. Original in Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

&ldquoThe Wife and Mother of a Sharecropper.&rdquo Photograph. As reproduced in A South Carolina Album, 1936-1948, Constance B Schulz, editor. Columbia: The University of South Carolina Press, 1992. Original in Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

&ldquoThe Home of A Negro.&rdquo Photograph. As reproduced in A South Carolina Album, 1936-1948, Constance B Schulz, editor. Columbia: The University of South Carolina Press, 1992. Original in Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

&ldquoThe Brown Family in Front of Their Home.&rdquo Photograph. As reproduced in A South Carolina Album, 1936-1948, Constance B Schulz, editor. Columbia: The University of South Carolina Press, 1992. Original in Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Correlating SC Social Studies Academic Standards:

Standard 3-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the major developments in South Carolina in the late nineteenth century and the twentieth century.

Indicator 3-5.4 Explain the impact and the causes of emigration from South Carolina and internal migration from the rural areas to the cities, including unemployment, poor sanitation and transportation services, and the lack of electricity and other modern conveniences in rural locations.

Standard 5-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the economic boom-and-bust in America in the 1920s and 1930s, its resultant political instability, and the subsequent worldwide response.

Indicator 5-4.2 Summarize the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression, including economic weakness, unemployment, failed banks and businesses, and migration from rural areas.

Standard 8-6: The student will demonstrate an understanding of South Carolina&rsquos development during the early twentieth century.

Black History Month: Farm Security Administration Photos

African Americans at table in Clarksdale, 1939, by Marion Post Wolcott. Call Number: PI/1986.0026, item 132 (MDAH Collection)

The Farm Security Administration collection (PI/1986.0026) is unique in that it documents the everyday life of Mississippians, both black and white, during the Depression era. The photographs capture a microcosm of daily activities, including people at work and leisure. The Library of Congress holds the original negatives, but MDAH has copies of images pertaining to Mississippi.

Patti Carr Black assembled many of these photographs for her book, Documentary Portrait of Mississippi: The Thirties. She wrote, “These images, along with Eudora Welty’s One Time, One Place, help define for us the meaning of the Depression in Mississippi. They also may help others understand an observation that Walker Evans [an FSA photographer] made shortly before his death: ‘I can understand why Southerners are haunted by their own landscape and in love with it.'” 1

Scene in Natchez, Mississippi, by Ben Shahn. Call Number: PI/1986.0026, item 77 (MDAH Collection)

This description from the Library of Congress gives a brief history of the collection:

The photographs of the Farm Security Administration – Office of War Information Photograph Collection form an extensive pictorial record of American life between 1935 and 1944…The project initially documented cash loans made to individual farmers by the Resettlement Administration and the construction of planned suburban communities. The second stage focused on the lives of sharecroppers in the South and migratory agricultural workers in the midwestern and western states. As the scope of the project expanded, the photographers turned to recording both rural and urban conditions throughout the United States as well as mobilization efforts for World War II. 2

"Jitterbugging in a juke joint on a Saturday afternoon," by Marion Post Wolcott. Call Number: PI/1986.0026, item 159 (MDAH Collection)3

1 Patti Carr Black, Documentary Portrait of Mississippi: The Thirties (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1982), 7.

2 Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Collection, “Background and Scope of Collection,” (accessed February 2, 2012).

3 Photograph caption from Black, Documentary Portrait of Mississippi, 83.

Works Cited

Carlebach, Michael L. “Documentary and Propaganda: The Photographs of the Farm Security Administration.” The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts 8 (Spring, 1988): 6–25. Web. 2 March 2009.

Doud, Richard and Rothstein, Arthur. “Arthur Rothstein Talks with Richard Doud.” Archives of American Art Journal 17.1 (1977): 19-23. Web. 2 March 2009.

“Propaganda, n.” Oxford English Dictionary Online. Oxford English Dictionary. Web. 2 March 2009.

Rothstein, Arthur. The Bleached Skull of a Steer on the Dry Sun-baked Earth of the South Dakota Bad Lands. LOOK Magazine Collection, Library of Congress. Web. 17 July 2009.

Steele, Richard W. Propaganda in an Open Society: the Roosevelt Administration and the Media, 1933–1941. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1985.

Szto, Peter. “Documentary Photography in American Social Welfare History: 1897–1943.” Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 35.2 (June 2008): 91–110.

Watch the video: Learning from the FSA Collection