Skimmer II LCI-1093 - History

Skimmer II LCI-1093 - History

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Skimmer II

(LCI(L)-1093: dp. 387(f.), 1. 159'0", b. 23'8", dr.
5'8"; s. 14.4 k. (tl.); cpl. 40; a. 5 20mm.; cl LCI(L)

The second Skimmer was laid down as LCI(L)-1093 a large, infantry landing craft, on 11 September 1941 by the Defoe Shipbuilding Co. of Bay City, Mich.; launched on 23 September 1944; and commissioned on 28 September 1944.

LCI(L)-1093 made her way through Lake Michigan and the Chicago Drainage Canal, down the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, and arrived at New Orleans, La., on 11 October 1944. She drydocked at New Orleans, then commenced her shakedown cruise to Galveston, Tex. After completing shakedown and amphibious training, she departed Galveston on 25 November 1944. She transited the Panama Canal on 1 December and arrived in San Diego, Calif., on the 18th. In mid-February 1945, following further exercises and training at San Diego LCl(L)-1093 got underway for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, en route to Guam in the Marianas. She entered Pearl Harbor on 11 March and departed soon thereafter visiting Eniwetok Atoll along the way to the Marianas. She made Guam on 8 April and stayed there until the 24th. From there she sailed to Saipan and, after about a month of miscellaneous duties there, headed for Okinawa. She spent the next month, 30 May to 30 June providing smoke screens, carrying troops and supplies, and helping other landing craft retract from the beaches.

The conquest of Okinawa was fairly well complete by the end of June, but the LCI(L) continued to operate in that vicinity until 12 September. At that time, she was sent to Japan where she performed a number of duties, including ferrying Allied prisoners-of-war to Guam and supporting the occupation forces in the Tokyo area. LCI(L)-1093 departed Japan on 14 April 1946. Sailing via Guam and Pearl Harbor, she arrived at San Diego on 10 June. By mid-July, she had retransited the Panama Canal and had arrived in Boston, Mass. She then decommissioned at Boston and was towed to the berthing area at Hingham, Mass.

She returned to Boston on 20 April 1947 and, for almost three years, served the 1st Naval District as a Naval Reserve training ship. In January 1950, she was taken to Charleston, S.C., to be inactivated. This time, she was berthed at Green Cove Springs, Fla. In August 1953, she returned to Charleston to be converted to a coastal minesweeper AMCU-41. On 23 January 1954 the ship was commissioned as Skimmer (AMCU 41), Lt. W. M. Gattis commanding. She was assigned to the 1st Naval District in late February 1954 and, on 6 March, departed Charleston for Boston. She headed via the Chesapeake Bay, Cheapeake and Delaware Canal, the East River, Long Island Sound, and the Cape Cod Canal and arrived in Boston on 14 March. She operated in the 1st Naval District for the next year participating in LANTS{JBMINEX-54 and LANTFLTEX55 and representing the 1st Naval District at the Rhode Island State American Legion Convention from 18 to 20 June 1954. On 1 March 1955, she commenced Phase Able inactivation at Boston and was redesignated MHC-41. By 20 April, she was back at Charleston S.C. beginning Phase Baker inactivation. Finally, on 1 July 1955, Skimmer decommissioned at Charleston and was berthed there as a unit of the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. In 1958, she was moved to the berthing area at Green Cove Springs, Fla.; and, on 1 January 1960, her name was struck from the Navy list. Skimmer (LCI(L)-1093) received one battle star for World War II service.

The History of Concrete Pools: The People’s Pool

When industry pioneer Philip Ilsley built the first gunite pool in 1940, he couldn’t have known that within four years a post-war economic boom would put the largest U.S. middle class in history at the feet of the new pool-construction industry.

Ilsley, who by this time owned Paddock Pools, shot the first gunite pool, which he called the “people’s pool,” in west Los Angeles, incorporating his inverted-dome shape. It measured 17 by 34 feet and cost between $1,000 and $1,600 — somewhere between one-fifth and one-half the cost of the poured-concrete pools his company had produced until then. The new method proved not only more cost effective than poured concrete, but also easier to control than hand-packed concrete, which couldn’t hold its shape on vertical walls and so required a very gradual slant from wall to floor.

Paddock’s productivity immediately jumped — from about 40 pools a year to 226. The volume business had begun.

Some of Paddock’s construction workers hated the new process, reportedly even sabotaging one job so badly that Ilsley had to modify it on site. He put large rocks at the water’s edge and extra guniting to accentuate its irregularities. It became the first gunite mountain-lake pool.

The pool industry may have remained lucrative through the Depression, but World War II sent it into virtual hibernation. Considering pools a non-essential use of scarce materials, the government banned most construction.

Once the war was over, however, millions of men who were trained to swim and financially fortified by the GI Bill could own homes and enjoy new comforts. Some wives continued to work after the war ended, boosting the family income even higher. These events couldn’t have been better timed if Ilsley himself had orchestrated them.

Materials remained scarce immediately after the war, but the industry began laying the groundwork for its first true building boom with early public relations efforts that convinced publications to run stories about pools.

In 1946, Phil Anthony turned his attention from building backyard concrete-block incinerators to pools exclusively, forming Anthony Pools in Los Angeles. Soon after, in 1948, Herman Silverman started Sylvan Pools. In 1952, California Pools opened its doors for business.

After another industry stall during the Korean War, the construction boom was cemented in place as 1952 to ’57 brought the first true rush for pools. By this time, the pool industry had begun moving inward from the two coasts, with Florida, Texas and the upper Midwest taking their cues from California and New York. In this decade, Anthony Pools — now a multi-branch company — brought financing to the industry, prompting even more families to call local pool builders. The National Swimming Pool Institute formed in 1956, coalescing the industry and providing a forum for builders and manufacturers to exchange ideas and solutions.

As the market for pools thrived, it brought some unfortunate byproducts, namely, price competition and the resulting corner-cutting, fly-by-night operations and even false advertising.

The ’50s boom continued through the 1960s, with burgeoning businesses, low unemployment and foreign markets clamoring for American products. Motels and publications continued to put pools in people’s consciousness, and housing contractors began including pools in their tract plans.

From the end of World War II through the 1960s, the gunite pool and many of its components went from invention to fine- tuning, until they emerged very similar to what we see on modern pools today.

Many companies didn’t convert to gunite until the 1950s, with the East Coast’s first builder, E.L. Wagner Co. of New York, shooting for the first time in 1950. Anthony Pools started guniting in ’51. While gunite made the most sense for residential pools, this new process required a substantial up-front investment in machinery. And the pools were still more labor-intensive and rudimentary than modern gunite models.

Builders continued to experiment with new types of pool structures, some less successful than others. Some builders, before they converted to gunite, used tar to seal control joints, which made painting them impossible. Others reportedly experimented with urethane and even roofing paper.

During this period, crews’ lives were simplified as excavation equipment shrank and became easier to maneuver rebar lost the hard spots that would kink and refuse to bend and manufacturers produced guniting equipment that didn’t require a dedicated operator.

Pool systems built in the 1960s could more gracefully withstand time and usage, thanks to plumbing’s evolution from galvanized iron and copper to black polyethylene, and finally to PVC. Fittings also went from brass to stainless steel to plastics.

Hydraulic systems became more effective as builders included main drains as standard components (but usually just one per residential pool). When manufacturers began making the drains as a complete unit, builders no longer had to cut them into gunite, cover them with a grate and hope they wouldn’t leak.

Skimmers came into existence as well, first as a floating device and later as part of the pool wall. Underwater lights fell into wide acceptance too, once people got used to the idea of having electricity near the water. Ground fault circuit interrupters entered the scene in this period as well, helping to quell fears.

Builders made pool configurations more interesting and user friendly by fashioning the kidney-shaped pool — the ’50s and ’60s version of the freeform — and designing love seats and steps. The use of marble dust instead of silica sand in plaster eliminated the tan-colored spots that would appear over time.

Otherwise, the appearance of pools remained relatively static during these 30 years. For the most part, builders had only blue and white tiles at their disposal, and decks remained mostly of broom-finished or salt-finished concrete, although less-accessible native stones and exposed aggregate did cover decks on high-end projects. In 1962, the advent of Kool Deck ushered in the modern deck finishes we see today. And cantilevered decks began appearing in the mid- to late-’60s.

About the Author

Rebecca Robledo is deputy editor of Pool & Spa News and Aquatics International. She is an award-winning trade journalist with more than 25 years experience reporting on and editing content for the pool, spa and aquatics industries. She specializes in technical, complex or detail-oriented subject matter with an emphasis in design and construction, as well as legal and regulatory issues. For this coverage and editing, she has received numerous awards, including four Jesse H. Neal Awards, considered by many to be the “Pulitzer Prize of Trade Journalism.”

The Kreepy Krauly pool cleaner was invented in 1974 by Ferdinand Chauvier, a hydraulic engineer from South Africa. The product caught fire in Florida in the early 1980’s when the Kreepy Krauly won the Daytona 24 hour race in 1984. In 1999, Kreepy Krauly was purchased by Pac-Fab and then by Pentair pool products, which expanded the product line beyond the traditional Kreepy Krauly suction pool cleaner.

But enough history, today’s post is an FAQ style troubleshooting guide for Kreepy Krauly suction pool cleaners. Hopefully I can answer your question below.

One of the best features of a Kreepy Krauly pool cleaners are their simple design, with only one moving part. Set aside any fears of fixing a Kreepy cleaner, they are easy to understand and you’ll be an expert very soon!


A Kreepy Krauly suction cleaner vacuums the pool bottom in the same manner as if you were vacuuming it manually, with a vac hose and vac head on a pole. It sucks debris up from the floor and brings it into your pump basket, or alternatively into the skimmer basket when using a Vac Plate, or into an inline strainer when connected on the other end of the first hose, that connects into the skimmer. The movement of the cleaner is created by the Flapper, a triangular piece of plastic that alternately closes off one of the two suction tubes, which creates a small ‘hop’ as suction is released for a short moment. As it hops, the Seal (large flat disk in contact with the floor) moves a very short distance, before suction pulls it down to the surface again. With enough suction from the pump, Kreepy cleaners can climb sloped inground pool walls, but will not usually clean steps, swimouts or shallow areas less than 36″ deep.


With the hose sections assembled onto the Kreepy cleaner, submerge the head into the water, and then ‘prime the hose’ by pushing it hand over hand, straight into the water, or holding the end of the hose over a forceful wall return fitting. Once the hose is completely full of water, you can connect it to the skimmer suction hole, first removing the skimmer basket. The Kreepy hose may come loose if you don’t connect it with the Automatic Regulator, although you can use a hose adapter, but the Regulator will make sure the flow rate is not too high for Kreepy to operate properly. A Locking Bar is available to help hold the Kreepy Hose stable in the skimmer, if you have problems with it coming loose.

For pools with large debris and lots of it, you can use the Kreepy Vac Plus II plate or other Skim Vac plate over top of your skimmer basket (which is larger and easier to clean than the pump basket, in most cases). And when even your skimmer basket is too small, you can connect an inline strainer between the first and second hose sections to trap very large volumes of leaves and debris.

After the cleaner is primed and connected to the skimmer (or other vacuum suction line), you may need to restrict the suction from the other lines coming into the pump (other skimmer and/or main drain lines), by closing a valve so that the pump draws less water from other lines, and more water from the skimmer where Kreepy is connected. Too much flow and Kreepy may ‘fly around’ the pool not touching the ground, and too little flow and Kreepy will just sit there. With some experimentation, you can find the best valve settings for Kreepy to operate well.

Generally speaking, a 3/4 hp pump is a minimum requirement, with better performance from higher horsepower inground pool pumps. The Automatic Regulator valve helps with larger pumps to automatically bypass water, while keeping some skimmer action while Kreepy is cleaning.


Just as long as it needs to, which is generally about 2-4 hours depending on the size of the pool and the amount of debris. Best practice is to remove Kreepy from the pool after you are satisfied with the results. If Kreepy regularly operates for extended periods of time, longer than it needs to, you may see increased wear and tear on the Seal and Foot Pad. In addition, your pool circulation is best when operating with a drain and skimmer action, and water quality may suffer if left in ‘cleaner mode’ for large portions of the day.


If the Kreepy Krauly is running too slowly, close off other suction lines (skimmer, main drain, spa), to draw more water through the skimmer or vac line where Kreepy is connected. A clean filter and clean pump basket (and impeller) is also important for Kreepy speed. If the Kreepy is operating too fast, so fast that it is lifting off the surface and missing debris, or spending too much time on the walls, open up the other suction line valves fully, and restrict the valve for the line where Kreepy is connected. The Automatic Regulator Valve and Compression Adapter is used with Kreepy to allow excess pump suction to pull through a small bypass door, which also retains some skimmer suction while Kreepy is operating.


Kreepy cleaners have an entirely random cleaning pattern, but will generally prefer one direction or the other, clockwise or counter-clockwise, with some variation across the pool. The two things that can be done to affect the direction of cleaning patterns is to switch the direction of your pool wall return eyeball fittings (if you have them), and the second thing is to move the hose weights a few inches on the hose (see below).


Kreepy Krauly comes with 40 ft. of hose and 2 hose weights. The hose should be long enough to reach the furthest part of the pool, plus one hose length. A Kreepy hose longer than needed will cause problems, and if too short, it won’t clean the entire pool. Hose weight placement depends on the depth of the pool. For pools 4′ deep or less, use 1 hose weight 4″ to 12″ from the cleaner. For pools of 4-7′ deep, use 2 weights, one 4″ to 12″ from the cleaner and one 6′ from the cleaner. For pools from 8′ to 12′ deep, use a third weight, placed 10 ft. from the swivel end of the cleaner.

Balancing the Kreepy hose is the term for adjusting the Kreepy weights, to balance the hose and cleaner in the water. Shut off the pump and note Kreepy’s position in the water. Correct hose balance is when the Kreepy Seal sits flat on the floor and the body of Kreepy’s Drive Tube makes a 45 degree angle with the pool floor. If the cleaner is More than 45° (leaning forward), the hose is too light, move weights closer to cleaner. If the cleaner is sitting Less than 45° (leaning backwards), the hose is too heavy, move the weights further away from the cleaner. Make small adjustments of just 1-3″, and retest for hose balance, traction and performance.


If Kreepy is getting stuck behind a ladder or handrail, you can install the Kreepy Ladder Guard K12330, or the Polaris G-21 ladder guard kit. Changing the direction of the cleaning pattern can also help, or shortening the hose or reducing Kreepy speed. To keep Kreepy from climbing the wall too much, remove the Dive Float restrictor and replace with the Wall Climb Adjuster.

If Kreepy is getting stuck on bumps in the pool floor, such as concave sections on the pool floor, try to reduce speed, change direction or adjust hose weights slightly to avoid the area or hit it at a different angle. For Kreepy cleaners that get stuck on the main drain cover, try a raised anti-vortex drain cover, or the Polaris Unicover as solutions.

If Kreepy gets stuck in one part of the pool, check the direction of the wall return jets. For high volume returns, pointing jets down to the floor, or using the Kreepy Eyeball Diverter can solve the problem. Low flow or suction can also be the cause, especially if Kreepy is not climbing out of the deep end.


Not an uncommon scenario, the Flapper can become stuck with large leaves, twigs or acorns. Gently pull the cleaner to the surface and turn it upside down to reveal the clog. Reach in with your fingers to pull out the clogging material. If you hold the cleaner under water while removing the clog, you will not need to disconnect the cleaner. Lift above water however, and it will suck air into the hose. If your Kreepy Krauly is clogged often, you may consider a Leaf Net over the pool during spring and fall periods of heavy debris. Either that, or do some heavy trimming on trees and bushes around the pool.


When Kreepy is not moving at all, but is connected properly, check that the Flapper is not clogged, by turning it over upside down and looking into the Drive Tube. Secondly be sure that your pool filter and pump basket is not clogged, which will slow down flow rates. Be sure that the pump is operating a ‘full head’, and is not hampered by an air leak around the pump, or backpressure from closed return valves, or a dirty filter. Third, check that the hoses are all tightly connected together, and inspect each hose for a tiny hissing sound, which may indicate a hole in a Kreepy Hose section.


For inground pools, the Kreepy Krauly inground pool cleaner, pictured here is still the Flagship pool cleaner, and may be the best Kreepy pool cleaner. As mentioned earlier however, Pentair has expanded the Kreepy product line by bringing other cleaners by Sta-Rite and Letro under the Kreepy name. Inground pools can also use the well-respected Kreepy Warrior and Kreepy Sand Shark suction cleaners or the powerful Kreepy Legend or Kreepy Racer pressure side cleaners with a booster pump.

For aboveground pools, the Kreepy EZ Vac is the little cousin of the Kreepy Krauly, with the same great design and performance, with less hose, and built to work on flat bottom pools under 5 ft deep, or take a look at the Kreepy Lil Shark cleaner, a Sta-Rite cleaner for over 20 years, until the name change.

In The Swim is a long time dealer of Kreepy Krauly cleaners, and you will find some of the lowest prices and most knowledgeable service on Kreepy cleaners and replacement Kreepy parts.

Rob Cox
In The Swim Blog Editor


Escort carriers Edit

Light cruisers Edit

Armed merchant cruisers Edit

Destroyers Edit

    (A class) (A class) (C class) (C class) (C class) (C class) (C class) (Cr class) (Cr class) (D class) (D class) (E class) (F class) (F class) (G class) (H class) (Wickes class) (Wickes class) (Wickes class) (Wickes class) (Clemson class) (Clemson class) (Clemson class) (Tribal class) (Tribal class) (Tribal class) (Tribal class) (Tribal class) (Tribal class) (Tribal class) (Tribal class) (V class) (V class) (Town class)* (Town class)* (Town class)* (Town class)* (Town class)* (Town class)* (Town class)* (Town class)* (Town class)* (Town class)*

*(US Navy Wickes and Clemson-class vessels commissioned into the Royal Navy as Town class, and later loaned to the RCN. Some also commissioned into the RCN.)

Frigates Edit

    (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (K244) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class, originally Megantic) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (River class) (Loch class) (Loch class) (Loch class)

Corvettes Edit

    (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (K244) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Flower class) (Castle class) (Castle class) (Castle class) (Castle class) (Castle class) (Castle class) (Castle class) (Castle class) (Castle class) (Castle class) (Castle class) (Castle class)

Minesweepers Edit

    (Algerine class) (Algerine class) (Algerine class) (Algerine class) (Algerine class) (Algerine class) (Algerine class) (Algerine class) (Algerine class) (Algerine class) (Algerine class) (Algerine class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Bangor class) (Fundy class) (Fundy class) (Fundy class) (Fundy class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Lake class) (Llewellyn class) (Llewellyn class) (Llewellyn class) (Llewellyn class) (Llewellyn class) (Llewellyn class) (Llewellyn class) (Llewellyn class) (Llewellyn class) (Llewellyn class)

Motor launches Edit

    (Fairmile B Type A) [4] (loaned to FFN)
  • HMC ML Q056
  • HMC ML Q057
  • HMC ML Q058
  • HMC ML Q059
  • HMC ML Q060
  • HMC ML Q061
  • HMC ML Q062 (loaned to FFN)
  • HMC ML Q063 (loaned to FFN)
  • HMC ML Q064
  • HMC ML Q065
  • HMC ML Q066
  • HMC ML Q067
  • HMC ML Q068
  • HMC ML Q069
  • HMC ML Q070
  • HMC ML Q071
  • HMC ML Q072
  • HMC ML Q073
  • HMC ML Q074
  • HMC ML Q075
  • HMC ML Q076
  • HMC ML Q077
  • HMC ML Q078
  • HMC ML Q079
  • HMC ML Q080
  • HMC ML Q081
  • HMC ML Q082
  • HMC ML Q083
  • HMC ML Q084
  • HMC ML Q085
  • HMC ML Q086
  • HMC ML Q087
  • HMC ML Q088
  • HMC ML Q089
  • HMC ML Q090
  • HMC ML Q091
  • HMC ML Q092
  • HMC ML Q093
  • HMC ML Q094
  • HMC ML Q095
  • HMC ML Q096
  • HMC ML Q097
  • HMC ML Q098
  • HMC ML Q099
  • HMC ML Q100
  • HMC ML Q101
  • HMC ML Q102
  • HMC ML Q103
  • HMC ML Q104
  • HMC ML Q105
  • HMC ML Q106
  • HMC ML Q107
  • HMC ML Q108
  • HMC ML Q109
  • HMC ML Q110
  • HMC ML Q111
  • HMC ML Q112 (Fairmile B Type B) [4]
  • HMC ML Q113
  • HMC ML Q114
  • HMC ML Q115
  • HMC ML Q116
  • HMC ML Q117
  • HMC ML Q118
  • HMC ML Q119
  • HMC ML Q120
  • HMC ML Q121
  • HMC ML Q122
  • HMC ML Q124
  • HMC ML Q125
  • HMC ML Q126
  • HMC ML Q127
  • HMC ML Q128
  • HMC ML Q129

*(Canadian Fairmiles were not commissioned. They were not named, until sold off, or assigned as tenders to various bases post-war. Ships loaned to Free French Navy (FFN) served under Canadian command.)

Motor Torpedo Boats Edit

  • HMCS CMTB-1[5]
  • "S-03" (ex USN PT-3)
  • "S-04" (ex USN PT-4)
  • "S-05" (ex USN PT-5)
  • "S-06" (ex USN PT-6)
  • "S-07" (ex USN PT-7)
  • HMCS S-09 (ex USN PT-9) [5]
  • MTB 459 (G type) [6]
  • MTB 460 (G type)
  • MTB 461 (G type)
  • MTB 462 (G type)
  • MTB 463 (G type)
  • MTB 464 (G type)
  • MTB 465 (G type)
  • MTB 466 (G type)
  • MTB 485 (G type)
  • MTB 486 (G type)
  • MTB 491 (G type)
  • MTB 726 (Fairmile D type) [6]
  • MTB 727 (Fairmile D type)
  • MTB 735 (Fairmile D type)
  • MTB 736 (Fairmile D type)
  • MTB 737 (Fairmile D type)
  • MTB 743 (Fairmile D type)
  • MTB 744 (Fairmile D type)
  • MTB 745 (Fairmile D type)
  • MTB 746 (Fairmile D type)
  • MTB 747 (Fairmile D type)
  • MTB 748 (Fairmile D type)
  • MTB 797 (Fairmile D type)

Armed trawlers Edit

Armed yachts Edit

    (Q11/Z32) (S10/Z10) (ex-Aztec) (ex-Elfreda) (ex-USS Sabalo) (ex-Arcadia) (S14), (ex-Halonia) (ex-Mascotte) (ex-Winchester (II))

Landing craft Edit

  • LCI (L) 115
  • LCI (L) 117
  • LCI (L) 118
  • LCI (L) 121
  • LCI (L) 125
  • LCI (L) 135
  • LCI (L) 166
  • LCI (L) 177
  • LCI (L) 249
  • LCI (L) 250
  • LCI (L) 252
  • LCI (L) 255
  • LCI (L) 260
  • LCI (L) 262
  • LCI (L) 263
  • LCI (L) 264
  • LCI (L) 266
  • LCI (L) 270
  • LCI (L) 271
  • LCI (L) 276
  • LCI (L) 277
  • LCI (L) 285
  • LCI (L) 288
  • LCI (L) 295
  • LCI (L) 298
  • LCI (L) 299
  • LCI (L) 301
  • LCI (L) 302
  • LCI (L) 305
  • LCI (L) 306
  • LCI (L) 310
  • LCI (L) 311
  • LCA 736
  • LCA 850
  • LCA 856
  • LCA 925
  • LCA 1021
  • LCA 1033
  • LCA 1057
  • LCA 1059
  • LCA 1137
  • LCA 1138
  • LCA 1150
  • LCA 1151
  • LCA 1371
  • LCA 1372
  • LCA 1374
  • LCA 1375

(The symbol FY in the pennant number denotes fishing vessels of the Fisherman's Reserve which constituted a large portion of the auxiliary fleet throughout the Second World War. [7] )

Accommodation vessels Edit

Anti-submarine target towing vessels Edit

  • CNAV Atwood (Z 47)
  • CNAV Brentwood (Z 48)
  • CNAV Eastwood (Z 49)
  • CNAV Greenwood (Z 50)
  • CNAV Inglewood (Z 51)
  • CNAV Kirkwood (Z 53)
  • CNAV Lakewood (Z 63)
  • CNAV Oakwood (Z 64)
  • CNAV Wildwood (Z 65)

Cable layers Edit

Coil skids Edit

  • C.S. 8
  • C.S. 10
  • C.S. 13
  • C.S. 14
  • C.S. 15
  • C.S. 16
  • C.S. 17
  • C.S. 18

Diving vessels Edit

  • Diving Tender No 2
  • Diving Tender No 3
  • Diving Tender No 4
  • Diving Tender No 5
  • Diving Tender No 6

Examination vessels Edit

    (Z03/W03) [8]
  • HMCS Citadelle
  • HMCS French (S01/Z23) [9] (Z31/J16) [10]
  • HMCS Laurier (S09/Z34) [11] (W07/Z38) [12] (Z44) [12] (Fy 93/Z02/Z24) [13] (Z19/J19) [13] (Z39) [14]
  • HMCS Ulna
  • HMCS Zoarces (Fy 62/Z36)

Gate vessels Edit

  • GV 1 (ex-HMCS Ypres)
  • GV 2
  • GV 3
  • GV 4
  • GV 5
  • GV 6
  • GV 7
  • GV 8
  • GV 9
  • GV 10
  • GV 11
  • GV 12 (ex-HMCS St. Eloi)
  • GV 13
  • GV 14 (ex-HMCS Loos)
  • GV 15 (ex-HMCS Arras)
  • GV 16 (ex-HMCS Arleux)
  • GV 17 (|ex-HMCS Festubert)
  • GV 18
  • GV 19
  • GV 20 (ex-CD 101)
  • GV 21
  • GV 22
  • GV 23
  • GV 24

Harbour craft Edit

  • HC 1 (Gay Rover)
  • HC 2
  • HC 3
  • HC 4
  • HC 5
  • HC 6
  • HC 7
  • HC 8
  • HC 9
  • HC 10
  • HC 11
  • HC 12
  • HC 13
  • HC 14
  • HC 15
  • HC 16
  • HC 17
  • HC 18
  • HC 19
  • HC 20
  • HC 21
  • HC 22
  • HC 23
  • HC 24
  • HC 25
  • HC 26 (ex-Active II)
  • HC 27 (ex-Advance)
  • HC 28 (ex-Aqcharaz)
  • HC 29 (ex-Arrow)
  • HC 30 (ex-Alberta III)
  • HC 31 (ex-Zig Zag, ex-HMCS Avalon III)
  • HC 32 (ex-Rustic I)
  • HC 33 (ex-HMCS Attendant)
  • HC 34 (ex-HMCS Attentive)
  • HC 35
  • HC 36 (ex-HMCS Burma)
  • HC 37 (ex-HMCS Captor I)
  • HC 38 (ex-HMCS Castor)
  • HC 39 (ex-Clair L)
  • HC 40 (I) (ex-Doris May)
  • HC 40 (II) (ex-HMCS Invader)
  • HC 41 (ex-Edith 1)
  • HC 42 (Ednorina)
  • HC 43 (ex-Ellsworth)
  • HC 44 (ex-Emoh)
  • HC 45 (ex-Nancy Lee)
  • HC 46 (ex-Fernand Rinfret)
  • HC 47 (ex-Guardian)
  • HC 48 (ex-Gulf Ranger I)
  • HC 49 (ex-HMCS Hochelaga II)
  • HC 50 (ex-Invader)
  • HC 51 (ex-Islander)
  • HC 52 (ex-Jack L. Ingalls)
  • HC 53 (ex-HMCS Jalobert)
  • HC 54
  • HC 55 (ex-Jessie May)
  • HC 56 (Langholm)
  • HC 57
  • HC 58 (ex-Lila G)
  • HC 59 (ex-Lorraine)
  • HC 60 (ex-Marlis)
  • HC 61 (ex-Marmat)
  • HC 62 (ex-Matapan)
  • HC 63 (ex-HMCS Protector)
  • HC 64 (ex-Raficer)
  • HC 65 (ex-Saker II)
  • HC 66
  • HC 67 (ex-Marie Therese)
  • HC 68
  • HC 69 (ex-Wild Duck I)
  • HC 70 (ex-"ML 007")
  • HC 71
  • HC 72
  • HC 73 (ex-"ML 010")
  • HC 74
  • HC 75 (ex-"ML 013", ex-HMCS Lynx))
  • HC 76
  • HC 77
  • HC 78 (ex-Miss Gray)
  • HC 79 (ex-Miss Kelvin)
  • HC 80 (ex-Moby Dick I)
  • HC 82
  • HC 83
  • HC 84
  • HC 85 (ex-Nancy C)
  • HC 86 (ex-Nepsya)
  • HC 87 (ex-New America)
  • HC 88 (Newbrunswicker)
  • HC 89 (ex-Laval)
  • HC 90 (ex-Papoose)
  • HC 91
  • HC 92 (ex-Rio Casma)
  • HC 93 (ex-R.J. Foote)
  • HC 94 (ex-Rosemary)
  • HC 95 (ex-Saltpetre)
  • HC 96 (ex-Saravan)
  • HC 97 (ex-Shirley Mae)
  • HC 98 (ex-Soma I)
  • HC 99 (ex-Spartan III)
  • HC 100 (ex-Sidney River)
  • HC 101 (ex-Tantramar)
  • HC 102 (ex-HMCS Tuna II)
  • HC 103 (ex-Valinda)
  • HC 104 (ex-HMCS Vigil II)
  • HC 105 (ex-Wild Duck II)
  • HC 106 (ex-Wings)
  • HC 107 (ex-Workboy)
  • HC 108
  • HC 109
  • HC 110 (ex-Queen Bee I)
  • HC 113
  • HC 115
  • HC 116
  • HC 117
  • HC 118
  • HC 119
  • HC 120
  • HC 122
  • HC 121 (ex-Lady Beth II)
  • HC 123 (ex-Tao Tog)
  • HC 124 (ex-Yorkholme)
  • HC 125 (Universe Z125)
  • HC 126
  • HC 127 (ex-Skimmer II)
  • HC 128 (ex-Bytown
  • HC 129 (ex-Susan S)
  • HC 130 (ex-Fahe)
  • HC 131
  • HC 132
  • HC 133 (ex-Montcalm)
  • HC 134 (ex-Fortuna)
  • HC 135 (Veraine)
  • HC 136 (ex-Ditchburn)
  • HC 137 (ex-Venning)
  • HC 138 (ex-Viking)
  • HC 139 (ex-Rainbow II)
  • HC 140
  • HC 141
  • HC 142 (ex-HMCS Blarney II)
  • HC 143 (ex-HMCS Gertrude)
  • HC 144 (ex-HMCS Hornet)
  • HC 145 (ex-HMCS Uno)
  • HC 146
  • HC 147 (ex-Dorcas II)
  • HC 148
  • HC 149
  • HC 151
  • HC 152
  • HC 153
  • HC 154
  • HC 155
  • HC 156
  • HC 157 (ex-HC 81)
  • HC 158 (ex-Dolphin II III)
  • HC 159 (ex-Mush)
  • HC 160 (ex-Mary Goreham)
  • HC 161
  • HC 162
  • HC 163
  • HC 164
  • HC 165 (ex-Pal-O-Mine II)
  • HC 166
  • HC 167
  • HC 168
  • HC 169
  • HC 170 (ex-Mush)
  • HC 171 (ex-Skimmer III)
  • HC 173
  • HC 175
  • HC 176
  • HC 177
  • HC 178
  • HC 180 (ex-RCMP D-10)
  • HC 181
  • HC 182
  • HC 183
  • HC 184
  • HC 185
  • HC 186
  • HC 187
  • HC 188
  • HC 189
  • HC 190 (ex -HMCS Venture)
  • HC 191 (ex-Autumn Leaf)
  • HC 192
  • HC 193
  • HC 194
  • HC 195
  • HC 196
  • HC 197
  • HC 198
  • HC 199
  • HC 200
  • HC 201 (ex-Yendys)
  • HC 202 (ex-Mudathalapadu)
  • HC 203
  • HC 204
  • HC 205
  • HC 206
  • HC 207 (ex-Paragon II I)
  • HC 208
  • HC 209
  • HC 210
  • HC 211
  • HC 212
  • HC 213
  • HC 214
  • HC 215
  • HC 217
  • HC 218 (ex-Retlas)
  • HC 219
  • HC 220
  • HC 221
  • HC 223 (ex-Sea Bird II)
  • HC 224
  • HC 225
  • HC 230
  • HC 231
  • HC 232
  • HC 233
  • HC 234
  • HC 235
  • HC 236
  • HC 237
  • HC 238
  • HC 239
  • HC 240
  • HC 241
  • HC 242
  • HC 243
  • HC 244
  • HC 245
  • HC 246
  • HC 247
  • HC 248
  • HC 249
  • HC 250
  • HC 251
  • HC 252
  • HC 253
  • HC 254
  • HC 255
  • HC 256
  • HC 257
  • HC 258
  • HC 259
  • HC 260
  • HC 261
  • HC 262
  • HC 263
  • HC 264
  • HC 265
  • HC 266
  • HC 267
  • HC 268
  • HC 269
  • HC 270
  • HC 272
  • HC 273
  • HC 274
  • HC 275
  • HC 276
  • HC 277
  • HC 278
  • HC 279
  • HC 280
  • HC 281
  • HC 282
  • HC 284
  • HC 285
  • HC 286
  • HC 287
  • HC 288
  • HC 289
  • HC 290
  • HC 291
  • HC 292
  • HC 293
  • HC 294
  • HC 295
  • HC 296
  • HC 297
  • HC 298 (Weetiebud)
  • HC 299
  • HC 300 (ex-Lipari)
  • HC 301
  • HC 303
  • HC 304
  • HC 305
  • HC 306
  • HC 307
  • HC 309
  • HC 310
  • HC 311
  • HC 312
  • HC 313
  • HC 314
  • HC 315
  • HC 316
  • HC 319
  • HC 320
  • HC 322 (Fy 47, Sea Wave)
  • HC 323
  • HC 325
  • HC 326
  • HC 327
  • HC 328 (Fy 41, ex-Bluenose)
  • HC 329
  • HC 330
  • HC 331
  • HC 332
  • HC 333
  • HC 334
  • HC 335
  • HC 336
  • HC 337
  • HC 338
  • HC 339 (Fy 45, ex-Sea Flash')
  • HC 340 (ex-HMCS Bluenose)
  • HC 342
  • HC 343
  • HC 344
  • HC 345 (ex-Go Getter)
  • HC 346
  • HC 347
  • HC 349
  • HC 350
  • HC 351
  • HPC 1
  • HPC 2
  • HPC 3
  • HPC 4
  • HPC 5
  • HPC 6
  • HPC 7
  • HPC 8
  • HPC 9
  • HPC 10
  • HPC 11
  • HPC 12
  • HPC 14
  • HPC 15
  • HPC 16
  • HPC 17
  • HPS 18 (Imperator Z18)
  • HPC 19
  • HPC 20
  • HPC 21 (ex-Lucinda II)
  • HPC 22 (ex-Kwabeeta)
  • HPC 23
  • HPC 24
  • HPC 25
  • HPC 26
  • HPC 27
  • HPC 28
  • HPC 29
  • HPC 30
  • HPC 31
  • HPC 33
  • HPC 34
  • HPC 35
  • HPC 36
  • HPC 37
  • HPC 38
  • HPC 39
  • HPC 40
  • HPC 41

Hospital ships Edit

Mine laying vessels Edit

Minesweeper auxiliaries Edit

    (TR 18/J06)
  • HMCS Cape Beale (Fy 26)
  • HMCS Joan W. II (Fy 34)
  • HMCS Mitchell Bay (Fy 05) (J13/J11/Z11) [16] (Z33/J08)
  • HMCS Signal (Fy 30) (Z16/J00) [17] (J03) (J04) (J05)
  • HMCS Takla (Fy 27) (J11/Z21) [18]
  • HMCS Vercheres

Mobile deperming craft Edit

Patrol boats Edit

Survey vessels Edit

Support ships Edit

Tenders Edit

Training vessels Edit

  • HMCS Attaboy
  • HMCS Cairn
  • HMCS Donnaconna II
  • HMCS Milicette
  • HMCS Pathfinder
  • HMCS Scatari
  • HMCS Shirl[20]
  • HMCS St. Clair
  • HMCS Venetia (later HC 190)

Tugboats Edit

    (W30) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glenbrook (W64/YTB 501) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glenclova (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glencove (W37) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glendevon (W38/YTB 505) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glendon (W39/YTB 506) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glendower (W24) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glendyne (W68/YTM 503) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Gleneagle (W40) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glenella (W41) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glen Evis (W65/YTB 502) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glenfield (W42) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glenholme (W28) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glenkeen (W67) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glen Lea (W25) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glenlivet (W43/YTB 504) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glenmont (W27) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glenora (W26) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glenside (W63/YTB 500) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glenvalley (W44) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Glenwood (W45) (Glen class)
  • HMCS Alberton (W48) (Norton class)
  • HMCS Beaverton (W23) (Norton class)
  • HMCS Birchton (W35) (Norton class)
  • HMCS Clifton (W36/ATA 529) (Norton class)
  • HMCS Heatherton (W22/ATA 527) (Norton class)
  • HMCS Maxwellton (W46) (Norton class)
  • HMCS Norton (W31) (Norton class)
  • HMCS Riverton (W47/ATA 528) (Norton class)
  • Adamsville (YTS 582) (Ville class)
  • Auburnville (W50) (Ville class)
  • Barkerville (Ville class)
  • Beamsville (YTS 583) (Ville class)
  • Blissville (W56) (Ville class)
  • Bonnyville (Ville class)
  • Coalville (YTS 576) (Ville class)
  • Eckville (W58/YTS 580) (Ville class)
  • Grenville (W20) (Ville class)
  • HMCS Haysville (W18) (Ville class)
  • Hartville (Ville class)
  • Hodgeville (W53) (Ville class)
  • Innisville (Ville class)
  • Jamesville (Ville class)
  • Johnville (Ville class)
  • Kayville (Ville class)
  • Kingsville (W19) (Ville class)
  • Lakeville (W21) (Ville class)
  • Lawrenceville (YTS 584) (Ville class)
  • Listerville (YTS 578) (Ville class)
  • Loganville (YTS 589) (Ville class)
  • Luceville (Ville class)
  • Mannville (W57/YTS 577) (Ville class)
  • Martinville (W61) (Ville class)
  • Marysville (YTS 585) (Ville class)
  • Merrickville (Ville class)
  • Neville (Ville class)
  • Otterville (W32/YTS 590) (Ville class)
  • Parksville (W49/YTS 579) (Ville class)
  • Pierreville (Ville class)
  • HMCS Plainsville (W01/YTS 587) (Ville class)
  • Queensville (YTS 586) (Ville class)
  • Radville (W52) (Ville class)
  • Roseville (Ville class)
  • Streetsville (W55) (Ville class)
  • Shawville (Ville class)
  • Youville (YTS 588) (Ville class)
  • FT 1 (Fire tug)
  • FT 2 (Fire tug)
  • FT 3 (Fire tug)
  • HMCS Bally (Fy 88)
  • HMCS Bersimis
  • Brighton (W35)
  • HMCS D.W. Murray
  • HMCS J.A.Cornett
  • HMCS Frank Dixon
  • HMCS Haro
  • HMCS Helena
  • HMCS Helen S
  • HMCS Lisgar
  • HMCS North Lake
  • HMCS North Shore
  • HMCS North Star
  • HMCS Northwind
  • HMCS Ocean Eagle (Fy 71/J07)
  • HMCS Patricia McQueen
  • HMCS Pugwash (W01)
  • HMCS Ripple II (Fy)
  • HMCS Stanpoint

W/T Calibration vessels Edit

Other Edit

  • HMCS Kipawa (BMV) (Z17/J10) (CS Tow) [14]
  • HMCS Anashene
  • HMCS Andrew Lee
  • HMCS Andy (II) (ex-HMCS Charny)
  • HMCS Lady Rodney (Fy 46/F40) (P07/Z07) [11]
  • HMCS Madawaska
  • HMCS Magedoma (P03/Z03) [19] (Fy 32) [15] (J12) [15]

Depot ships, also known as stone frigates or accommodation ships, are those navy shore establishments that are by tradition allocated ship names. In some instances the name for an establishment located at a harbour is derived from an actual ship stationed permanently in that harbour.

All About Skimmers

The series I’ve written about ATM skimmers, gas pump skimmers and other related fraud devices have become by far the most-read posts on this blog. I put this gallery together to showcase the entire series, and to give others a handy place to reference all of these stories in one place. Click the headline or the image associated with each blurb for the full story.

Real card slot on left, skimmer on right.

Jan. 15, 2010: Would You Have Spotted the Fraud? Pictured here is what’s known as a skimmer, or a device made to be affixed to the mouth of an ATM and secretly swipe credit and debit card information when bank customers slip their cards into the machines to pull out money. Skimmers have been around for years, of course, but thieves are constantly improving them, and the device pictured below is a perfect example of that evolution. This particular skimmer was found Dec. 6, 2009, attached to the front of a Citibank ATM in Woodland Hills, Calif. Would you have been able to spot this?

ATM PIN capture overlay device pulled back to reveal the legitimate PIN entry pad.

Feb. 2, 2010: ATM Skimmers, Part II …The U.S. Secret Service estimates that annual losses from ATM fraud totaled about $1 billion in 2008, or about $350,000 each day. Card skimming, where the fraudster affixes a bogus card reader on top of the real reader, accounts for more than 80 percent of ATM fraud. Last week, I had a chance to chat with Rick Doten, chief scientist at Lockheed Martin‘s Center for Cyber Security Innovation. Doten has built an impressive slide deck on ATM fraud attacks, and pictured below are some of the more interesting images he uses in his presentations.

The backside end of a standard, $1,500 Diebold skimmer sold online.

March 25, 2010: Would You Have Spotted This ATM Fraud? …The site also advertises a sort of rent-to-own model for would-be thieves who need seed money to get their ATM-robbing businesses going. “Skim With Our Equipment for 50% of Data Collected,” the site offers. The plan works like this: The noobie ATM thief pays a $1,000 “deposit” and is sent a skimmer and PIN pad overlay, along with a link to some videos that explain how to install, work and remove the skimmer technology.

June 3, 2010: ATM Skimmers: Separating Cruft from Craft …The truth is that most of these skimmers openly advertised are little more than scams designed to separate clueless crooks from their ill-gotten gains. Start poking around on some of the more exclusive online fraud forums for sellers who have built up a reputation in this business and chances are eventually you will hit upon the real deal.

The backside of a GSM-based PIN pad overlay

June 17, 2010: Sophisticated ATM Skimmer Transmits Stolen Data Via Text Message – Operating and planting an ATM skimmer — cleverly disguised technology that thieves attach to cash machines to intercept credit and debit card data — can be a risky venture, because the crooks have to return to the scene of the crime to retrieve their skimmers along with the purloined data. Increasingly, however, criminals are using ATM skimmers that eliminate much of that risk by relaying the information via text message.

Bluetooth-enabled gas pump skimmer.

July 20, 2010: Skimmers Siphoning Card Data at the Pump …Thieves recently attached bank card skimmers to gas pumps at more than 30 service stations along several major highways in and around Denver, Colorado, the latest area to be hit by a scam that allows crooks to siphon credit and debit card account information from motorists filling up their tanks.

Fun With ATM Skimmers, Part III …According to the European ATM Security Team (EAST), a not-for-profit payment security organization, ATM crimes in Europe jumped 149 percent form 2007 to 2008, and most of that increase has been linked to a dramatic increase in ATM skimming attacks. During 2008, a total of 10,302 skimming incidents were reported in Europe. Below is a short video authorities in Germany released recently showing two men caught on camera there installing a skimmer and a pinhole camera panel above to record PINs.

Nov. 10, 2010: All-in-One Skimmers – ATM skimmers come in all shapes and sizes, and most include several components — such as a tiny spy cam hidden in a brochure rack, or fraudulent PIN pad overlay. The problem from the thief’s perspective is that the more components included in the skimmer kit, the greater the chance that he will get busted attaching or removing the devices from ATMs. Thus, the appeal of the all-in-one ATM skimmer: It stores card data using an integrated magnetic stripe reader, and it has a built-in hidden camera designed to record the PIN sequence after an unsuspecting customer slides his bank card into the compromised machine.

Audio skimmer for Diebold ATMs

Nov. 23, 2010: Crooks Rock Audio-based ATM Skimmers – The European ATM Security Team (EAST) found that 11 of the 16 European nations covered in the report experienced increases in skimming attacks last year. EAST noted that in at least one country, anti-skimming devices have been stolen and converted into skimmers, complete with micro cameras used to steal PINs. EAST said it also discovered that a new type of analogue skimming device — using audio technology — has been reported by five countries, two of them “major ATM deployers” (defined as having more than 40,000 ATMs).

A GSM-based ATM card skimmer.

Dec. 13, 2010: Why GSM-based ATM Skimmers Rule …So, after locating an apparently reliable skimmer seller on an exclusive hacker forum, I chatted him up on instant message and asked for the sales pitch. This GSM skimmer vendor offered a first-hand account of why these cell-phone equipped fraud devices are safer and more efficient than less sophisticated models — that is, for the buyer at least (I have edited his sales pitch only slightly for readability and flow).

Jan. 17, 2011: ATM Skimmers, Up Close…I wasn’t sure whether I could take this person seriously, but his ratings on the forum — in which buyers and sellers leave feedback for each other based on positive or negative experiences from previous transactions — were good enough that I figured he must be one of the few people on this particular forum actually selling ATM skimmers, as opposed to just lurking there to scam fellow scammers.

Jan. 31, 2011: ATM Skimmers That Never Touch the ATM….Media attention to crimes involving ATM skimmers may make consumers more likely to identify compromised cash machines, which involve cleverly disguised theft devices that sometimes appear off-color or out-of-place. Yet, many of today’s skimmer scams can swipe your card details and personal identification number while leaving the ATM itself completely untouched, making them far more difficult to spot.

Feb. 16, 2011: Having a Ball With ATM Skimmers …On February 8, 2009, a customer at an ATM at a Bank of America branch in Sun Valley, Calif., spotted something that didn’t look quite right about the machine: A silver, plexiglass device had been attached to the ATM’s card acceptance slot, in a bid to steal card data from unsuspecting ATM users. But the customer and the bank’s employees initially overlooked a secondary fraud device that the unknown thief had left at the scene: A sophisticated, battery operated and motion activated camera designed to record victims entering their personal identification numbers at the ATM.

Mar. 11, 2011: Green Skimmers Skimming Green…To combat an increase in ATM fraud from skimmer devices, cash machine makers have been outfitting ATMs with a variety of anti-skimming technologies. In many cases, these anti-skimming tools take the shape of green or blue semi-transparent plastic casings that protrude from the card acceptance slot to prevent would-be thieves from easily attaching skimmers. But in a surprising number of incidents, skimmer scammers have simply crafted their creations to look exactly like the anti-skimming devices.

April 10, 2001: ATM Skimmers: Hacking the Cash Machine…Most of the ATM skimmers I’ve profiled in this blog are comprised of parts designed to mimic and to fit on top of existing cash machine components, such as card acceptance slots or PIN pads. But sometimes, skimmer thieves find success by swapping out ATM parts with compromised look-alikes.

This paper-thin membrane fits under the real PIN pad.

May 18, 2011: Point-of-Sale Skimmers: Robbed at the Register …Michaels Stores said this month that it had replaced more than 7,200 credit card terminals from store registers nationwide, after discovering that thieves had somehow modified or replaced machines to include point of sale (POS) technology capable of siphoning customer payment card data and PINs. The specific device used by the criminal intruders has not been made public. But many devices and services are sold on the criminal underground to facilitate the surprisingly common fraud.

3D printer firm i.materialise received and promptly declined orders for these skimmer devices.

Sept. 20, 2011: Gang Used 3D Printers for ATM Skimmers …An ATM skimmer gang stole more than $400,000 using skimming devices built with the help of high-tech 3D printers, federal prosecutors say. Apparently, word is spreading in the cybercrime underworld that 3D printers produce flawless skimmer devices with exacting precision. In June, a federal court indicted four men from South Texas (PDF) whom authorities say had reinvested the profits from skimming scams to purchase a 3D printer.

An audio skimmer for a Diebold ATM.

Oct. 13, 2011: ATM Skimmer Powered by MP3 Player …Almost a year ago, I wrote about ATM skimmers made of parts from old MP3 players. Since then, I’ve noticed quite a few more ads for these MP3-powered skimmers in the criminal underground, perhaps because audio skimmers allow fraudsters to sell lucrative service contracts along with their theft devices. The vendor of this skimmer kit advertises “full support after purchase,” and “easy installation (10-15 seconds).” But the catch with this skimmer is that the price tag is misleading. That’s because the audio files recorded by the device are encrypted. The Mp3 files are useless unless you also purchase the skimmer maker’s decryption service, which decodes the audio files into a digital format that can be encoded onto counterfeit ATM cards.

Dec. 7, 2011: Pro Grade (3D Printer-Made?) ATM Skimmer… In July 2011, a customer at a Chase Bank branch in West Hills, Calif. noticed something odd about the ATM he was using and reported it to police. Authorities who responded to the incident discovered a sophisticated, professional-grade ATM skimmer that they believe was made with the help of a 3D printer.

Backside of an ATM skimmer found this year at a bank in the San Fernando Valley area of California.

April 25, 2012: Skimtacular: All-In-One ATM Skimmer…I spent the past week vacationing (mostly) in Southern California, traveling from Los Angeles to Santa Barbara and on to the wine country in Santa Ynez. Along the way, I received some information from a law enforcement source in the area about a recent ATM skimmer attack that showcased a well-designed and stealthy all-in-one skimmer.

July 24, 2012: ATM Skimmers Get Wafer Thin… It’s getting harder to detect some of the newer ATM skimmers, fraud devices attached to or inserted into cash machines and designed to steal card and PIN data. Among the latest and most difficult-to-spot skimmer innovations is a wafer-thin card reading device that can be inserted directly into the ATM’s card acceptance slot.

Sept. 5, 2012: A Handy Way to Foil ATM Skimmers… I spent several hours this past week watching video footage from hidden cameras that skimmer thieves placed at ATMs to surreptitiously record customers entering their PINs. I was surprised to see that out of the dozens of customers that used the compromised cash machines, only one bothered to take the simple but effective security precaution of covering his hand when entering his 4-digit code.

Nov. 20, 2012: Beware Card- and Cash-trapping at the ATM… Many security-savvy readers of this blog have learned to be vigilant against ATM card skimmers and hidden devices that can record you entering your PIN at the cash machine. But experts say an increasing form of ATM fraud involves the use of simple devices capable of snatching cash and ATM cards from unsuspected users.

A crude skimming device removed from an Inova Hospital in Fairfax, Va. last month.

Dec. 12, 2012: ATM Thieves Swap Security Camera for Keyboard…This blog has featured stories about a vast array of impressive, high-tech devices used to steal money from automated teller machines (ATMs). But every so often thieves think up an innovation that makes all of the current ATM skimmers look like child’s play. Case in point: Authorities in Brazil have arrested a man who allegedly stole more than USD $41,000 from an ATM after swapping its security camera with a portable keyboard that let him hack the cash machine.

Dec. 18, 2012: Point-of-Sale Skimmers: No Charge…Yet… If you hand your credit or debit card to a merchant who is using a wireless point-of-sale (POS) device, you may want to later verify that the charge actually went through. A top vendor of POS skimmers ships devices that will print out “transaction approved” receipts, even though the machine is offline and is merely recording the customer’s card data and PIN for future fraudulent use.

Feb. 1, 2013: Pro-Grade Point-of-Sale Skimmer….Every so often, the sophistication of the technology being built into credit card skimmers amazes even the experts who are accustomed to studying such crimeware. This post focuses on one such example — images from one of several compromised point-of-sale devices that used Bluetooth technology to send the stolen data to the fraudsters wirelessly.

Apr. 24, 2013: How Not To Install an ATM Skimmer…. Experts in the United States and Europe are tracking a marked increase in ATM skimmer scams. But let’s hope that at least some of that is the result of newbie crooks who fail as hard as the thief who tried to tamper with a Bank of America ATM earlier this week in Nashville.

July 16, 2013: Getting Skimpy With ATM Skimmers…Cybercrooks can be notoriously cheap, considering how much they typically get for nothing. I’m reminded of this when I occasionally stumble upon underground forum members trying to sell a used ATM skimmer: Very often, the sales thread devolves into a flame war over whether the fully-assembled ATM skimmer is really worth more than the sum of its parts.

Oct. 10, 2013: Norstrom Finds Cash Register Skimmers…Scam artists who deploy credit and debit card skimmers most often target ATMs, yet thieves can also use inexpensive, store-bought skimming devices to compromise modern-day cash registers. Just this past weekend, for instance, department store chain Nordstrom said it found a half-dozen of these skimmers affixed to registers at a store in Florida.

Dec. 3, 2013: Simple But Effective Point-of-Sale Skimmer…Point-of-sale (POS) skimmers — fraud devices made to siphon bank card and PIN data at the cash register — have grown in sophistication over the years: A few months back, this blog spotlighted a professionally made point-of-sale skimmer that involved some serious hacking inside the device. Today’s post examines a comparatively simple but effective POS skimmer that is little more than a false panel which sits atop the PIN pad and above the area where customers swipe their cards.

Dec. 18, 2013: The Biggest Skimmers of All: Fake ATMs…This blog has spotlighted some incredibly elaborate and minaturized ATM skimmers, fraud devices that thieves attach to ATMs in a bid to steal card data and PINs. But a skimmer discovered in Brazil last month takes this sort of fraud to another level, using a completely fake ATM designed to be stacked directly on top of a legitimate, existing cash machine.

Jan. 22, 2014: Gang Rigged Pumps With Bluetooth Skimmers…Authorities in New York on Tuesday announced the indictment of thirteen men accused of running a multi-million dollar fraud ring that allegedly installed Bluetooth-enabled wireless gas pump skimmers at filling stations throughout the southern United States.

May 30, 2014: Thieves Planted Malware to Hack ATMs…A recent ATM skimming attack in which thieves used a specialized device to physically insert malicious software into a cash machine may be a harbinger of more sophisticated scams to come.

July 14, 2014: The Rise of Thin, Mini and Insert Skimmers…Like most electronic gadgets these days, ATM skimmers are getting smaller and thinner, with extended battery life. Here’s a look at several miniaturized fraud devices that were pulled from compromised cash machines at various ATMs in Europe so far this year.

August 21, 2014: Stealthy, Razor Thin ATM Insert Skimmers…An increasing number of ATM skimmers targeting banks and consumers appear to be of the razor-thin insert variety. These card-skimming devices are made to fit snugly and invisibly inside the throat of the card acceptance slot. Here’s a look at a stealthy new model of insert skimmer pulled from a cash machine in southern Europe just this past week.

October 20, 2014: Spike in Malware Attacks on Aging ATMs…This author has long been fascinated with ATM skimmers, custom-made fraud devices designed to steal card data and PINs from unsuspecting users of compromised cash machines. But a recent spike in malicious software capable of infecting and jackpotting ATMs is shifting the focus away from innovative, high-tech skimming devices toward the rapidly aging ATM infrastructure in the United States and abroad.

November 26, 2014: Skimmer Innovation: ‘Wiretapping’ ATMs…Banks in Europe are warning about the emergence of a rare, virtually invisible form of ATM skimmer involving a so-called “wiretapping” device that is inserted through a tiny hole cut in the cash machine’s front. The hole is covered up by a fake decal, and the thieves then use custom-made equipment to attach the device to ATM’s internal card reader.

December 9, 2014: More on Wiretapping ATM Skimmers…Last month, this blog featured a story about an innovation in ATM skimming known as wiretapping, which I said involves a “tiny” hole cut in the ATM’s front through which thieves insert devices capable of eavesdropping on and recording the ATM user’s card data. Turns out, the holes the crooks make to insert their gear tend to be anything but tiny.

January 6, 2015: Thieves Jackpot ATMs with Black Box Attack…Previous stories on KrebsOnSecurity about ATM skimming attacks have focused on innovative fraud devices made to attach to the outside of compromised ATMs. Security experts are now warning about the emergence of a new class of skimming scams aimed at draining ATM cash deposits via a novel and complex attack.

March 17, 2015: Door Skimmer + Hidden Camera = Profit…If an ATM you’d like to use is enclosed in a vestibule that requires a card swipe at the door, it might be a good idea to go find another machine, or at least use something other than a payment card to gain entry. Thieves frequently add skimmers to these key card locks and then hide cameras above or beside such ATMs, allowing them to steal your PIN and card data without ever actually tampering with the cash machine itself.

April 6, 2015: Hacking ATMS, Literally…Most of the ATM skimming attacks written about on this blog conclude with security personnel intervening before the thieves manage to recover their skimmers along with the stolen card data and PINs. However, an increasingly common form of ATM fraud — physical destruction — costs banks plenty, even when crooks walk away with nothing but bruised egos and sore limbs.

May 4, 2015: Foiling Pump Skimmers with GPS…Credit and debit card skimmers secretly attached to gas pumps are an increasingly common scourge throughout the United States. But the tables can be turned when these fraud devices are discovered, as evidenced by one California police department that has eschewed costly and time-consuming stakeouts in favor of affixing GPS tracking devices to the skimmers and then waiting for thieves to come collect their bounty.

July 22, 2015: Spike in ATM Skimming in Mexico?…Several sources in the financial industry say they are seeing a spike in fraud on customer cards used at ATMs in Mexico. The reason behind that apparent increase hopefully will be fodder for another story. In this post, we’ll take a closer look at a pair of ATM skimming devices that were found this month attached to a cash machine in Puerto Vallarta — a popular tourist destination on Mexico’s Pacific coast.

Aug. 11, 2015: Chip Card ATM ‘Shimmer’ Found in Mexico…Fraud experts in Mexico have discovered an unusual ATM skimming device that can be inserted into the mouth of the cash machine’s card acceptance slot and used to read data directly off of chip-enabled credit or debit cards. The device pictured below is a type of skimmer known as a “shimmer,” so named because it acts a shim that sits between the chip on the card and the chip reader in the ATM — recording the data on the chip as it is read by the ATM.

Sept. 14, 2015: Tracking a Bluetooth Skimmer Gang in Mexico…Halfway down the southbound four-lane highway from Cancun to the ancient ruins in Tulum, traffic inexplicably slowed to a halt. There was some sort of checkpoint ahead by the Mexican Federal Police. I began to wonder whether it was a good idea to have brought along the ATM skimmer instead of leaving it in the hotel safe. If the cops searched my stuff, how could I explain having ultra-sophisticated Bluetooth ATM skimmer components in my backpack?

Sept. 15, 2015: Tracking Bluetooth Skimmers in Mexico, Part II…I spent four days last week in Mexico, tracking the damage wrought by an organized crime ring that is bribing ATM technicians to place Bluetooth skimmers inside of cash machines in and around the tourist areas of Cancun. Today’s piece chronicles the work of this gang in coastal regions farther south, following a trail of hacked ATMs from Playa Del Camen down to the ancient Mayan ruins in Tulum.

Dec. 16, 2015: Skimmers Found at Some Calif., Colo. Safeways…Sources at multiple financial institutions say they are tracking a pattern of fraud indicating that thieves have somehow compromised the credit card terminals at checkout lanes within multiple Safeway stores in California and Colorado. Safeway confirmed it is investigating skimming incidents at several stores.

Feb. 3, 2016: Spike in ATM Skimming in Mexico?…In Dec. 2015, KrebsOnSecurity warned that security experts had discovered skimming devices attached to credit and debit card terminals at self-checkout lanes at Safeway stores in Colorado and possibly other states. Safeway hasn’t disclosed what those skimmers looked like, but images from a recent skimming attack allegedly launched against self-checkout shoppers at a Safeway in Maryland offers a closer look at once such device.

Feb. 9, 2016: Skimmers Hijack ATM Network Cables…If you have ever walked up to an ATM to withdraw cash only to decide against it after noticing a telephone or ethernet cord snaking from behind the machine to a jack in the wall, your paranoia may not have been misplaced: ATM maker NCR is warning about skimming attacks that involve keypad overlays, hidden cameras and skimming devices plugged into the ATM network cables to intercept customer card data.

May 5, 2016: Crooks Go Deep With ‘Deep Insert’ Skimmers…ATM maker NCR Corp. says it is seeing a rapid rise in reports of what it calls “deep insert skimmers,” wafer-thin fraud devices made to be hidden inside of the card acceptance slot on a cash machine. KrebsOnSecurity’s All About Skimmers series has featured several stories about insert skimmers. But the ATM manufacturer said deep insert skimmers are different from typical insert skimmers because they are placed in various positions within the card reader transport, behind the shutter of a motorized card reader and completely hidden from the consumer at the front of the ATM.

May 25, 2016: Skimmers Found at Walmart: A Closer Look…Recent local news stories about credit card skimmers found in self-checkout lanes at some Walmart locations reminds me of a criminal sales pitch I saw recently for overlay skimmers made specifically for the very same card terminals. Much like the skimmers found at some Safeway locations earlier this year, the skimming device pictured below was designed to be installed in the blink of an eye at self-checkout lanes — as in recent incidents at Walmart stores in Fredericksburg, Va. and Fort Wright, Ky. In these attacks, the skimmers were made to piggyback on card readers sold by payment solutions company Ingenico.

June 13, 2016: ATM Insert Skimmers In Action…KrebsOnSecurity has featured several recent posts on “insert skimmers,” ATM skimming devices made to fit snugly and invisibly inside a cash machine’s card acceptance slot. I’m revisiting the subject again because I’ve recently acquired how-to videos produced by two different insert skimmer peddlers, and these silent movies show a great deal more than words can tell about how insert skimmers do their dirty work.

June 24, 2016: How to Spot Ingenico Self-Checkout Skimmers…A KrebsOnSecurity story last month about credit card skimmers found in self-checkout lanes at some Walmart locations got picked up by quite a few publications. Since then I’ve heard from several readers who work at retailers that use hundreds of thousands of these Ingenico credit card terminals across their stores, and all wanted to know the same thing: How could they tell if their self-checkout lanes were compromised? This post provides a few pointers.


Skimmerhorn was a farmer in Minnesota when his entire family, apart from himself and his son John, were massacred by Sioux Indians. The incident was responsible for giving Skimmerhorn a pathological hatred of all Native Americans. He further justified his hatred by grounding it in religion, claiming that the Indians were "Lamanites" rejected by God.

During the Civil War, Skimmerhorn comes to Colorado, convinced that he's on a mission from God to commit genocide against all Native Americans. There, he leads an attack on a defenseless Arapaho village, slaughtering men, women, and children without mercy. After the "battle", Skimmerhorn has Captain John McIntosh, who refused to take part in the atrocity, court-martialed for disobeying orders. During the trial, the truth comes out and all charges are dropped, but Skimmerhorn is not punished because the Army doesn't have the authority to punish members of the territorial militia.

Meanwhile, Major Maxwell Mercy, a longtime friend of the Natives, tries to make peace with the "half-breed" Pasquinel brothers, who have been leading Indian raids against the settlers. Skimmerhorn sends white men disguised as Indians to shoot and injury Mercy, creating the impression that the Indians are a real threat and will attack even the white people who trust them. The scheme works and the settlers rally around Skimmerhorn again.

It is at this point that Skimmerhorn's son John arrives in Colorado. With John tagging along, Skimmerhorn and a mob of militiamen find Jake Pasquinel and summarily hang him. John is horrified by his father's behavior. Sometimes later, Skimmerhorn is telling a newspaper reporter in Denver about this "victory" when Mike Pasquinel enters the city, carrying a white flag of truce and hoping to get a fair trial from the Regular Army. Skimmerhorn sees Mike Pasquinel and instantly shoots him in the back, killing him in the middle of the street. With this cowardly action, public opinion is firmly turned against Skimmerhorn.

Maxwell Mercy, who was also a half-brother of the Pasquinels, challenges Skimmerhorn to a duel, but Mercy's friend Levi Zendt puts an end to the duel before Skimmerhorn is killed. John tells his father that he's not wanted in Colorado anymore and Skimmerhorn is outraged that his son wouldn't be against the Indians after what the Sioux did to their family. John replies that his father has done worse and Skimmerhorn leaves the Colorado Territory for good.

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History [ edit | edit source ]

The Condor's seen more than her fair share of battles, but though the creaking hulk may look the worse for wear, the old ship still has a few tricks up her sleeve. And no one's better at coaxing them out of her than Stork. In fact, Stork and the Condor have come to the rest of the team's rescue countless times, swooping in out of the clouds with the horn blasting out a warning to anyone who dares to get in the way. It regularly has breakdowns with things like the High-Speed Impeller, causing Stork to complain and become anxious, sometimes needing to put on his Trance Helmet to relax.

Since the defeat of the Original Storm Hawks, the Condor was grounded in the Wastelands and left in a state of dilapidation. Stork eventually found and began repairing the carrier, however he was unable to find its ignition key. Years later the rest of the new Storm Hawks found the Condor as well (though setting off booby traps which Stork laid out, intended for Cyclonians), bringing with them the ignition key.

According to Stork in "Dude, Where's My Condor?", the Condor is at least 117 years old, as that was when it set the record for the Stalso 5000, running it in under 12 hours, a record that has yet to be broken. In the same episode, it was bought by the Colonel and 'tricked out', painted in purple and gold, with its signature fog horn replaced with a novelty horn that played La Cucaracha. The Colonel acquired it to fulfill a long-held desire of his, to break the Atmos Airspeed Record. To do this, he 'restored' its original working state, including a few of his personal aesthetic changes, and installed a Velocity Crystal Array, which would allow the Condor to run at 4200 ticks-per-hour, speeds Stork informs Aerrow would rip the Condor in half.

After the Condor began to break apart, the Colonel gave the airship back to the Storm Hawks, who managed to save it by manually deploying the landing gear and releasing safety chutes from the outside of the ship to create drag, and disabling the Velocity Crystal Array in the engine core. After checking the controls, Stork was delighted to find they had broken the airspeed record, exclaiming he knew the Condor still had it in her.

In "Stratosphere", the Condor was retrofitted for high-altitude flight to reach the stratosphere with the intent of disabling the weapon platform Cyclonia had constructed there. The weapons platform was only the first stage of the Cyclonian plot, as its true purpose was to launch an 'Exopod', a massive crystal-powered orbital weapon that could be used to attack and destroy anything Cyclonia desired. The Exopod was nudged back towards the stratosphere by Radarr, and burned up in re-entry, and the Condor safely recovered both Aerrow and his co-pilot.

In "Dark Waters", the Condor (as well as the Storm Hawks' skimmers) was retrofitted for underwater navigation by the shipwrights of Terra Aquanos when they were called to rescue Triton and the Neck Deeps, who had been stuck at the bottom of the lake for three days. These modifications included making the Condor watertight, installing propellers and front-facing lights, and adding an unnamed light crystal used for illuminating the dark waters.

In "Payback" the Condor was destroyed but is later rebuilt in the following episode by countless volunteers.

Photoacclimation by arctic cryoconite phototrophs

Rupert G. Perkins

Christopher J. Williamson

Marian L. Yallop

Elizabeth Bagshaw

Lisa Mol [email protected]
Senior Lecturer in Physical Geography

Maggie Gamble


© FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. Cryoconite is a matrix of sediment, biogenic polymer and a microbial community that resides on glacier surfaces. The phototrophic component of this community is well adapted to this extreme environment, including high light stress. Photoacclimation of the cryoconite phototrophic community on Longyearbreen, Svalbard, was investigated using in situ variable chlorophyll fluorescence. Rapid light curves (RLCs) and induction-recovery curves were used to analyse photosystem II quantum efficiency, relative electron transport rate and forms of downregulation including non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and state transitions in cyanobacteria. Phototrophs used a combination of behavioural and physiological photochemical downregulation. Behavioural downregulation is hypothesised to incorporate chloroplast movement and cell or filament positioning within the sediment matrix in order to shade from high light, which resulted in a lack of saturation of RLCs and hence overestimation of productivity. Physiological downregulation likely consisted of biphasic NPQ, comprising a steadily induced light-dependent form and a light-independent NPQ that was not reversed with decreasing light intensity. State transitions by cyanobacteria were the most likely physiological downregulation employed by cyanobacteria within the mixed phototroph community. These findings demonstrate that cryoconite phototrophs combine multiple forms of physiological and behavioural downregulation to optimise light exposure and maximise photosynthetic productivity. This plasticity of photoacclimation enables them to survive productively in the high-light stress environment on the ice surface.


Yallop, M. L., Williamson, C. J., Perkins, R. G., Bagshaw, E., Mol, L., Fagan, D., & Gamble, M. (2017). Photoacclimation by arctic cryoconite phototrophs. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 93(5),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 13, 2017
Online Publication Date Feb 18, 2017
Publication Date Feb 18, 2017
Deposit Date Feb 16, 2017
Publicly Available Date Feb 19, 2018
Journal FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Print ISSN 0168-6496
Electronic ISSN 1574-6941
Publisher Oxford University Press (OUP)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 93
Issue 5
Keywords cryoconite, down regulation, non-photochemical quenching,
photoacclimation, productivity, fluorescence
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Additional Information : This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in FEMS Microbiology Ecology following peer review. The version of record Perkins, R., Bagshaw, E., Mol, L., Williamson, C., Fagan, D., Gamble, M. and Yallop, M. (2017) Photoacclimation by Arctic cryoconite phototrophs. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 93 (5). Available from: is available online at:


Perkins et al Cryoconite Photoacclimation FEMS 2017.pdf (797 Kb)


We really loved this skimmer, and in particular we appreciated the absence of any necessary cleaning. It only requires rotating the internal brushes once a day and draining out the glass when it fills up. The values of the aquarium has been perfect for the entire period that we used it. The construction is wonderful, and we believe that the price of 599 euro ($660 USD) for this skimmer perfectly matches its performance.

During use it has been extremely regular and efficient, with a value of sucked air that surprised us. The measured value is 40% higher than the declared value: INCREDIBLE!. Easy to open and clean, but it doesn’t need that. And we also appreciated the window that allows us to see the level of water in the glass: it’s so useful that we can’t believe it hasn’t been done before. But Red Sea did.

We’d say that it is appropriate for an aquarium with SPS corals and fish up to 500 liters, but if the tank was less populated, with only fish or with soft corals, I think we could try to go over the limit of 800-1000 liters.

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