1 December 1943

1 December 1943

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1 December 1943

War in the Air

Eighth Air Force Heavy Bomber Mission No. 145: 293 aircraft sent to attack industrial areas at Solingen, supported by six pathfinders, in a repeat of the raid of 30 November. 281 aircraft attack the target, 24 aircraft are lost.

File #1042: "Communications Directive No. 1 December 8, 1943.pdf"

Wand relay Them to the ap >ropriato Wing Headquarters.

c. Based on the consolidated Croup requisitions, Wing Head*

quarters will compile a request i^hich will be foirweraed directly to FT30
in '^Ashington.

1. Forme. The form, or content, or requisitions within a Wing

shall be as prescribed by the Wing Commander. The requisition sent to
PCC shall be prepared a letter.
4 . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y, ^ i n g C o r a s n a n d e r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e t h a t t h e

intent of Ihls directive Is carefully observed. The necessary action

to effect compliance within his echelon will be Initiated and executed
b y t h e C o m r a u n i o a t l o n s O f fi c e r.

5 . C u i d e . Ta b u l a t e d b e l o w i s a l i s t o f t h e F C C f o r m e r e q u i r e d ,

based on using personnel. The figure in eoluam 2 is goveimed by the

number of copies required by W30. This list I0 Intended to be a guide

only, and units having aCditlonal requirement3 r^re authorized to submit
requisitions therefor.

Per ilala Opr dom Nbo Com 01 rliotj Observer,
Per Had bprj Ooa NCOj Ccan 0 Pilot Observer.
Per Had Opr| Con SCO Com 0 Pilot Observer.

P e r H a d O p r C o m N C O C o m 0 P i l o t O b s e r v e r.

Per Rad Opr Com NCO Com 0 Pilot Observer.
Per Airborne Transmitter (other than v^kRS).
Per Wg Hq.
FCC Order No.
CAP Form No.

Per Rad Opri Com MCO Com 0 Pilot Observer.
Per WBRS Rad Station.

Kotes Form 66O may be obtained from CAP National Headquarters.

By direction of National ComiHander JOHNSON:
CoBsiunloatlons Of fie

1 December 1943 - History

Jonathon Risen, New York Times

In an exclusive interview with a Navajo Indian, the NEW YORK TIMES has learned that Navajo Indians have been forced into service by the U.S. military establishment.

It is shocking that, in the middle of the 20th Century, such abuse of our Native Americans could be taking place without approval of the courts. Neither President Roosevelt nor Secretary of War Stimson has given a public comment or returned a telephone call.

The TIMES has learned that so-called Navajo Code Talkers have been used by our military for secure communications. It can now be reported that they have served all six Marine divisions, Marine Raider battalions, and Marine parachute units, transmitting messages by telephone and radio in their native language. The Japanese have not been able to break the code.

In May 1942, the first 29 Navajo recruits attended boot camp. Then, at Camp Pendleton, Oceanside, California, this first group created the Navajo code. They developed a dictionary and numerous words for military terms. The dictionary and all code words had to be memorized during training.

Once a Navajo code talker completed his training, he was sent to a Marine unit deployed in the Pacific theater. The code talkers' primary job was to talk, transmitting information on tactics and troop movements, orders and other vital battlefield communications over telephones and radios. They also acted as messengers, and performed general Marine duties.

When a Navajo code talker received a message, what he heard was a string of seemingly unrelated Navajo words. The code talker first had to translate each Navajo word into its English equivalent. Then he used only the first letter of the English equivalent in spelling an English word. Thus, the Navajo words "wol-la-chee" (ant), "be-la-sana" (apple) and "tse-nill" (axe) all stood for the letter "a." One way to say the word "Navy" in Navajo code would be "tsah (needle) wol-la-chee (ant) ah-keh-di- glini (victor) tsah-ah-dzoh (yucca)."

Most letters had more than one Navajo word representing them. Not all words had to be spelled out letter by letter. The developers of the original code assigned Navajo words to represent about 450 frequently used military terms that did not exist in the Navajo language. Several examples: "besh- lo" (iron fish) meant "submarine," "dah-he- tih-hi" (hummingbird) meant "fighter plane" and "debeh-li-zine" (black street) meant "squad."

In our next report, we are prepared to name the Navajos who have assisted the Marines, and we will also name the additional personnel who are familiar with the code.

A source has come forward, exclusively to the TIMES, who has delivered to our offices what he purports to be the complete code being used in the South Pacific. If we are able to ascertain that the information is genuine, we will publish the entire code in a special edition next Sunday. It will be available at newsstands everywhere.

Integration At Last

On June 5, 1956, a Montgomery federal court ruled that any law requiring racially segregated seating on buses violated the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. That amendment, adopted in 1868 following the U.S. Civil War, guarantees all citizens—regardless of race𠅎qual rights and equal protection under state and federal laws.

The city appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which upheld the lower court’s decision on December 20, 1956. Montgomery’s buses were integrated on December 21, 1956, and the boycott ended. It had lasted 381 days.

1 December 1943 - History

1409 – It was opening day at The University of Leipzig.

1755 – The second Eddystone Lighthouse was completely destroyed by fire. It had stood for 52 years, as opposed to the first Eddystone Lighthouse which only lasted 5 years before being obliterated by The Great Storm of 1703.

1775 – The Grand Union Flag, which was the precursor to the Stars and Stripes, flew for the first time when it was was hoisted by John Paul Jones himself, aboard the USS Alfred.

1804 – Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor of the French at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. He was the first French Emperor in a millenium.

1805 – The French Grande Armee led by Napoleon Bonaparte decisively defeated a Russo-Austrian army commanded by Tsar Alexander I after nearly 9 hours of difficult fighting at The Battle of Austerlitz, in Moravia. This resulted in the end of the Third Coalition, the abdication of Francis II Holy Roman Emperor and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.

"Napoléon at the Battle of Austerlitz"

Artist Francois Gerard, 1810

1823 – US President James Monroe delivered a speech to the United States Congress that announced a new policy of forbidding European interference in the Americas and established American neutrality in future European conflicts. This would come to be called the Monroe Doctrine.

1845 – Manifest Destiny: US President James Polk announced to Congress that the Monroe Doctrine would be strictly enforced and that the United States should aggressively expand into the West.

1848 – In Olmütz, Franz Josef I became Emperor of Austria.

1851 – Newly elected French President Charles Louis Bonaparte overthrew The Second Republic.

1852 – Napoleon III became Emperor of the French.

1859 – Militant abolitionist leader John Brown was hanged for his October 16th raid on Harper's Ferry.

1899 – During The Philippine-American War, The Battle of Tirad Pass, (sometimes called The Filipino Thermopylae) was fought.

1908 – At the ripe old age of 2 years and 10 months Emperor Pu Yi ascended the Chinese throne.

1915 - Albert Einstein published the General Theory of Relativity, the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

1920 – Following more than a month of The Turkish-Armenian War, the Turkish dictated Treaty of Alexandropol was concluded.

1927 – After 19 years of Ford Model T production, the Ford Motor Company unveiled the Ford Model A as its new automobile.

1928 Ford Model A Business Coupe

Photo by Douglas Wilkinson, taken for RemarkableCars.com

1930 – US President Herbert Hoover went before the United States Congress and asked for a US$150 million public works program to help generate jobs and stimulate the economy. (Hmmm, a US president going to Congress begging for money that will supposedly generate jobs and stimulate the economy why does that sound familiar. )

1939 – New York City's La Guardia Airport opened.

1942 – The Manhattan Project: A team led by Enrico Fermi initiated the very first self sustaining nuclear chain reaction. A coded message, "The Italian navigator has landed in the new world" was then sent to US President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

1943 – A Luftwaffe bombing raid on the harbour of Bari, Italy, sank numerous cargo and transport ships. Included in these was an American Liberty ship, the John Harvey, with a stockpile of World War I era mustard gas aboard. The bombing caused the single (and unintentional) release of chemical weapons in the course of the war by the Allies.

1946 – The British Government invited four Indian leaders, Nehru, Baldev Singh, Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan to obtain the participation of all parties in the Constituent Assembly.

1947 – The Jerusalem Riots: Riots broke out in Jerusalem in response to the approval of the UN Partition Plan.

1954 – The United States Senate voted 65 to 22 to condemn Joseph McCarthy for "conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute".

1954 – The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, between the United States and the Republic of China, was signed in Washington, D.C. (I probably shouldn't get started on this one. )

1956 – The yacht Granma reached the shores of Cuba's Oriente province. Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, along with 80 other members of the 26th of July Movement disembarked to initiate The Cuban Revolution.

1961 – In a nationally broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declared that he was a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba was going to adopt Communism. (And this was supposed to be a surprise to us all?)

1962 – After a trip to Vietnam at the request of US President John F. Kennedy, US Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield became the first American official not to make an optimistic public comment on the war's progress.

1970 – The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began operations.

1971 – Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, and Umm Al Quwain came together to form the United Arab Emirates.

1972 – Gough Whitlam became the first Labor Prime Minister of Australia in 23 years. He was famously sworn in on election night and his first action using executive power was to withdraw all Australian personnel from The Vietnam War.

1975 – The communist Pathet Lao, along with Vietnam People's Army and backed by the Soviet Union, overthrew the royalist Lao government, forcing King Savang Vatthana to abdicate. He later died in captivity. Lao then established the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

1980 – Four U.S. nuns along with churchwomen, Ita Ford, Maura Clarke, Jean Donovan, and Dorothy Kazel, were murdered by a death squad in El Salvador.

1988 – Benazir Bhutto was sworn in as Prime Minister of Pakistan, becoming the first woman to head the government of an Islam dominated state.

1990 – A coalition led by Chancellor Helmut Kohl won the first free all inclusive German elections to be held since 1932.

1993 – The Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar was shot and killed in Medellín.

1993 – Space Shuttle program STS-61: NASA launched the Space Shuttle Endeavour on a successful mission to repair an optical flaw in the Hubble Space Telescope.

The STS-61 crew servicing the Hubble Space Telescope while docked to Endeavour's cargo bay

Photo courtesy NASA

1999 – 7 people were killed and another 51 injured in The Glenbrook Rail Accident near Sydney, New South Wales.

1999 – The United Kingdom devolved political power in Northern Ireland to the Northern Ireland Executive.

2000 - The Smashing Pumpkins played their final gig at The Metro in Chicago, Illinois before permanently disbanding.

2001 – Enron Corp. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy 5 days after Dynegy cancelled an $8.4 billion buyout bid.

2008 – Thai Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat resigned following the 2008 Thailand Political Crisis.

1368 - The future king of France, Charles VI (Charles the Mad) was born.

1533 - Died this day: Vasili III, the Grand Prince of Moscow (b. 1479).

1800 – During The War of the Second Coalition, French General Moreau's army dealt a decisive defeat to the forces of Austrian Archduke John at The Battle of Hohenlinden, near Munich. This in addition to Napoleon's victory at Marengo forced the Austrians to sign an armistice ending the war.

1818 – Illinois became the 21st U.S. state.

1854 – The Eureka Stockade: In Australia, more than 20 gold miners at Ballarat, Victoria were killed by state troopers in an uprising over mining licences.

1901 – US President Theodore Roosevelt delivered a (20,000-word) speech to the House of Representatives asking the Congress to curb the power of trusts "within reasonable limits".

1904 – The Jovian moon Himalia was discovered by Charles Dillon Perrine at California's Lick Observatory.

1912 – Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia (The Balkan League) signed an armistice with Turkey, intended to halt the 2 month long First Balkan War. Greece, amongst other belligerents, was not a signatory to the armistice and continued military operations. Hostilities resumed expiration of the armistice on February 16, 1913.

1917 – After nearly 20 years of planning and construction, The Quebec Bridge finally opened to traffic. The bridge had partially collapsed on September 11, 1916.

Photographs of the lifting of the center span of the Quebec Bridge into place, considered to be a major engineering achievement for the day.

As published in Popular Mechanics magazine (December 1919 edition)

The Quebec Bridge at night (from the east side, with the Pierre-Laporte bridge in the background)

Photo by Martin St-Amant (June 17th, 2005)

1928 - In Rio de Janeiro, a seaplane sank near Cap Arcona. On board were a group of people paying homage to Alberto Santos-Dumont.

1929 – US President Herbert Hoover announced to the U.S. Congress that the worst effects of the recent stock market crash were behind the nation and the American people had regained faith in the economy. (Hoover was well known for being a wishful dreamer.)

1937 - The Dandy, the world's longest running comic, was first published.

1944 – During The Greek Civil War, fighting broke out in Athens between the ELAS and government forces supported by the British Army.

1967 - Often referred to as The Greatest Train of them All, the luxury train 20th Century Limited made its last run after more than 65 years in service. It had become uneconomical for New York Central Railroad to operate.

The 20th Century Limited of the Boston and Albany Railroad (c. 1915)

Photograher unknown

1967 – At Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa 53 year old Louis Washkansky became the first human to receive a heart transplant, he died 18 days later from double pneumonia. The transplant team was headed by Dr. Christiaan Barnard.

1968 – Elvis' '68 Comeback Special aired nationwide on NBC.

1970 – The October Crisis: In Montreal, Quebec, kidnapped British Trade Commissioner James Cross was released by the Front de Libération du Québec terrorist group after being held hostage for 60 days. Police negotiated his release and in return the Canadian government granted five terrorists from the FLQ's Chenier Cell their request for safe passage to Cuba. (It's called "caving in to the hoods", in the real world.)

1971 – The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: Pakistan bit off more than it could chew when it launched a pre-emptive strike against India, initiating a full scale war that lasted for only 2 weeks but resulted in over 24,000 dead and more than 14,000 wounded and injured.

1973 – Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sent back the first close up images of Jupiter.

Jupiter as photographed by Pioneer 10

Photo courtesy NASA

1976 – An assassination attempt was made on Bob Marley. He was shot twice, but played a concert only two days later.

1979 – 11 fans were killed in a crush for seats before a (general seating) Who concert at Riverfront Coliseum in Cincinnati, Ohio.

1982 – A soil sample was taken from Times Beach, Missouri. It would be found to contain more than 300 times the safe level of dioxin.

1984 – The Bhopal Disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, killed more than 3,800 people outright and injured 600,000 others. 6,000 of the injured would later die from their toxic effects. This is still considered the worst industrial disaster in history.

1989 – In a meeting off the coast of Malta, US President George Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev released statements indicating that the cold war between the two nations may be nearing an end. Media commentators from both sides exaggerated the wording and independently declared the Cold War to be over.

1990 – At Detroit Metropolitan Airport, Northwest Airlines Flt. 1482 (a DC-9) collided with Northwest Airlines Flt. 299 (a Boeing 727) on the runway. Miraculously only 7 passengers and 1 crewmember aboard Flt. 1482 were killed. (Crashing into a 727 with a DC-9 is akin to crashing into a 3-ton truck with a Geo Metro.)

1992 – UN Security Council Resolution 794 was unanimously passed. It approved a coalition of United Nations peacekeepers, led by the United States, to form UNITAF. Their task was to establish peace and ensure that humanitarian aid was fairly distributed in Somalia. (More resolutions with the same dismal results. )

1992 – The Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, carrying 80,000 tonnes of crude oil, ran aground in a storm while on approach to La Coruña, Spain. The resulting huge oil spill left the surrounding beaches and waters devastated for years.

1997 – The Ottawa Treaty: In Ottawa, Canada representatives from 121 countries signed a treaty prohibiting manufacture and deployment of anti-personnel landmines. The United States, People's Republic of China, Israel and Russia, amongst others, did not sign the treaty. (I've seen what landmines can do to somebody firsthand, so I guess I don't have any suitable comment fit for print. )

1999 – NASA lost radio contact with the Mars Polar Lander moments before the spacecraft entered the Martian atmosphere.

1999 - After rowing for 81 days and 2,962 miles, 36 year old Tori Murden became the first woman to cross the Atlantic Ocean by rowboat alone when she reached Guadeloupe from the Canary Islands.

2005 – XCOR Aerospace made the first manned rocket aircraft delivery of US Mail in Mojave, California.

The XCOR Aerospace Rocket Racer on landing roll out at Mojave

Photo by Alan Radecki

2007 – Winter storms caused the Chehalis River to flood many cities in Lewis County, Washington. It also closed a 20 mile portion of Interstate 5 for several days. At least 8 deaths and billions of dollars in damages were blamed on the floods.

306 – The martyrdom of Saint Barbara

771 – Austrasian King Carloman died, leaving his brother Charlemagne King of the now complete Frankish Kingdom.

1110 – Sidon was sacked in The First Crusade by the troops of King Baldwin of Jerusalem and King Sigurd of Norway.

1259 – Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agreed to The Treaty of Paris. Henry renounced his claims to French controlled territory on continental Europe, including Normandy, in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.

1563 – The 25th, and final, session of the Council of Trent was held (the 1st session was held 18 years earlier on December 13, 1545).

1619 – 38 colonists from Berkeley Parish in England disembarked in Virginia and gave thanks to God this is usually considered to be the first Thanksgiving in the Americas.

1674 – Father Jacques Marquette founded a mission on the shores of Lake Michigan to minister to the Illiniwek. The mission later grew into the city of Chicago, Illinois.

1676 – The Battle of Lund: A Danish army under the command of King Christian V of Denmark was defeated by the Swedish army led by Field Marshal Simon Grundel-Helmfelt.

1745 – The army of Bonnie Prince Charlie (Charles Edward Stewart) reached Swarkestone Bridge, near Derby, its furthest point during the second Jacobite rising.

1783 – At Fraunces Tavern in New York City, US General George Washington formally bid his officers farewell.

1791 – The first edition of The Observer, the world's first Sunday newspaper, was published.

1829 – In the face of fierce opposition, British governor Lord William Bentinck issued a regulation declaring that all who abetted suttee in India were guilty of culpable homicide. (He actually got that one right.)

1864 – Sherman's March to the Sea: At Waynesboro, Georgia, forces under Union General Judson Kilpatrick prevented troops led by Confederate General Joseph Wheeler from interfering with Union General William T. Sherman's campaign destroying a wide swath of the South on his march to the Atlantic Ocean from Atlanta, Georgia. Union forces suffered more than three times the Confederate casualties.

1867 – Former Minnesota farmer Oliver Hudson Kelley founded the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry (better known today as the Grange).

1872 – The crewless American ship Mary Celeste was found by the British brig Dei Gratia. The ship had been abandoned for 9 days but was only slightly damaged and still seaworthy.

1875 – Notorious New York City politician Boss Tweed escaped from prison and fled to first Cuba and then Spain.

1881 – The first edition of the Los Angeles Times was published.

1909 – The Canadian Football League's 1st Grey Cup game was played. The University of Toronto Varsity Blues defeated the Toronto Parkdale Canoe Club 26–6.

1918 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson set sail for the World War I peace talks in Versailles, becoming the first US president to travel to Europe while in office.

1921 – The first of 3 manslaughter trials against Roscoe 'Fatty' Arbuckle for the death of Virginia Rappe ended in a hung jury.

1941 - The largest land based transport aircraft of WWII, the Messerschmitt Me 323 Gigant made its maiden flight.

Messerschmitt Me 323 Gigant

Photo by Menzendorf, courtesy Deutsches Bundesarchiv (German Federal Archive)

1942 – In Warsaw, Zofia Kossak-Szczucka and Wanda Krahelska-Filipowicz set up the Żegota organization.

1942 – During The Guadalcanal Campaign, Carlson's Patrol (also known as The Long Patrol) conducted by the 2nd Marine Raider Battalion ended.

1943 – In Yugoslavia, resistance leader Marshal Tito proclaimed a provisional democratic Yugoslav government in exile.

1943 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt closed down the Works Progress Administration, because of the high levels of wartime employment in the United States.

1945 – By a vote of 65 to 7, the United States Senate approved US participation in the United Nations.

1954 – The first Burger King was opened in Miami, Florida.

Burger King logo (c. 1950's)

1958 – Dahomey, (present day Benin) became a self governing country within the French Community. (Ya shoulda gone for full independence, guys, and not waited another 2 years to pull the plug!)

1964 - The Berkely Free Speech Movement: Police arrested over 800 students at the University of California, Berkely Camous, following their takeover and sit in at the administration building in protest over the UC Regents' decision to forbid protests on UC property.

1969 – Black Panther Party members Fred Hampton and Mark Clark were shot and killed in their sleep during a raid by 14 Chicago police officers.

1971 – The UN Security Council called an emergency session to consider the deteriorating situation between India and Pakistan. (Yup, they passed more resolutions. )

1971 – The Indian Navy attacked the Pakistan Navy and Karachi harbor.

1971 – The Montreux Casino in Montreux, Switzerland was set ablaze by a fan wielding a flare gun during a Frank Zappa concert the incident was the basis for the Deep Purple song "Smoke on the Water".

1971 – McGurk's Bar bombing: An Ulster Volunteer Force bomb killed 15 civilians and wounded 17 more in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

1975 – Suriname joined the United Nations. (And what good did that do you clowns?)

1977 – Jean-Bédel Bokassa, president of the Central African Republic, crowned himself Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire. (The Empire was gone as soon as he was. )

1977 – In Tanjong Kupang, Johor, Malaysia Airlines Flt. 653 crashed after it was hijacked. All 100 on board were killed.

1978 – Following the murder of Mayor George Moscone, Dianne Feinstein became San Francisco, California's first female mayor.

1979 – The Hastie Fire, in Kingston upon Hull, killed 3 schoolboys and eventually led police to arrest Bruce George Peter Lee.

1980 – Led Zeppelin officially disbanded, following the death of drummer John Bonham on September 25th.

1982 – The People's Republic of China adopted its current constitution.

1984 – Hezbollah militants hijacked a Kuwait Airlines Boeing 727. They would kill 4 passengers.

1991 – Journalist Terry Anderson was released after 7 years in captivity as a hostage in Beirut. He was the last and longest held American hostage in Lebanon.

1991 – Captain Mark Pyle piloted Clipper Goodwill, a Pan American World Airways Boeing 727, to Miami International Airport ending 64 years of Pan Am operations.

Pan American World Airways Boeing 377 Stratocruiser (N1033V) "Cipper Seven Seas" arriving at London Heathrow on September 12, 1954 during Pan Am's heyday.

Photo by RuthAS

1992 – President George H. W. Bush ordered 28,000 US troops to Somalia in Northeast Africa.

1993 – A truce was concluded between the government of Angola and UNITA rebels.

2005 – Tens of thousands of people in Hong Kong protested for democracy and called on the Government to allow universal and equal suffrage.

2006 – An adult giant squid was caught on video by Kubodera near the Ogasawara Islands, 1,000 km (620 miles) south of Tokyo.

2008 – The Governor General of Canada prorogued parliament as a result of a parliamentary dispute. (Parliamentary dispute = Understatement of the year!)

63 BC – Cicero read the last of his Catiline Orations.

663 – The Fourth Council of Toledo took place at the church of Saint Leocadia in Toledo, Spain.

1082 – Ramon Berenguer II, the Count of Barcelona was assassinated. His brother, who went on to become the sole ruler of Catalonia, is credited with having orchestrated the murder.

1360 – The French Franc was introduced by King John II. Its name comes from the inscription reading Johannes Dei Gratia Francorum Rex ("Jean by the grace of God King of the Franks") and its value was set as one livre tournois (a money of account).

1408 – The Mongol Emir Edigu of the Golden Horde and his forces reached Moscow.

1484 – Pope Innocent VIII issued the Summis desiderantes, a papal bull that deputized Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger as inquisitors to root out alleged witchcraft in Germany and led to one of the most oppressive witch hunts in European history. (I guess Innocent wasn't as innocent as he proclaimed.)

1492 – Christopher Columbus became the first European to set foot on the island of Hispaniola.

1496 – King Manuel I of Portugal issued a decree of expulsion of heretics from the country.

1560 – France’s King Francis II died at only age 16 and was succeeded by his 10 year old brother, Charles IX. (Only in France. )

1590 – Niccolò Sfondrati became Pope Gregory XIV.

1746 – In Genoa a revolt erupted against Spanish rule.

1757 – The Seven Years' War: A Prussian army under Frederick the Great defeated Austrian forces under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine at The Battle of Leuthen in Leuthen, present day Poland.

1766 – In London, James Christie held his first auction. He would later go on to found Christie's, the world's oldest auction house.

1775 – At Fort Ticonderoga, Henry Knox began his historic transport of artillery to Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1776 – In the Apollo Room of the Raleigh Tavern in Williamsburg, Virginia, students from the College of William and Mary met for the first time founding Phi Beta Kappa, the first scholastic fraternity in the United States.

1791 - In Vienna an impoverished Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died at the age of 35.

Wolfgang Amedeus Mozart (circa 1780)

Painting by Johann Nepomuk della Croce

1815 – The founding of the coastal city of Maceió, in Brazil.

1831 – Former US President John Quincy Adams took his seat in the House of Representatives.

1839 - George Armstrong Custer was born. (Mr. and Mrs. Custer's charming little yellow-haired bouncing baby boy!)

1847 – Jefferson Davis was elected to the US senate, his first political post.

1865 – The Chincha Islands War: Peru allied with Chile against Spain.

1873 - In Boston, Massachusetts, Warren Avenue Baptist Church sexton Thomas Piper strangled and beat to death his first victim, Bridget Landregan. The press soon dubbed the then unknown serial killer "The Boston Belfry Murderer".

1876 – The Brooklyn Theater Fire killed 278 people in Brooklyn, NY.

Brooklyn Theatre, looking east down Johnson Street toward Adams Street, shortly after the December 5th, 1876 fire.

Photographer unknown

1914 – The Italian Parliament proclaimed the neutrality of the country. (That one sure didn't last. )

1920 – Dimitrios Rallis formed a government in Greece following the general election.

1926 - Sergei Eisenstein's silent movie classic Battleship Potemkin, debuted in New York.

1932 – German born Swiss physicist Albert Einstein was granted an American visa.

1933 – Prohibition in the United States ended when Utah became the 36th U.S. state to ratify the Twenty first Amendment to the United States Constitution. This established the required 75% of states needed to enact the amendment overturning the 18th Amendment which had made the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol illegal in the United States.

1934 – The Abyssinia Crisis: Italian troops attacked Wal Wal in Abyssinia. It took 4 days to capture the city in spite of the fact that it was undefended and virtually unarmed.

1936 – The Soviet Union adopted a new constitution and the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a full Union Republic of the USSR. (Oh! That’ll make things better under Uncle Joe!)

1941 – During The Battle of Moscow Soviet general Georgy Zhukov launched a massive Soviet counter attack against the German army, with the biggest offensive launched against Army Group Centre.

Soviet Offensive near Moscow. Troops in winter gear, supported by tanks, counter attack German forces. December, 1941

Artist unknown

1941 - John Steinbeck's nonfiction book Sea of Cortez was published. Steinbeck used knowledge gained writing this book to develop the marine biologist character Doc in Cannery Row.

1941 – Great Britain declared war on Finland, Hungary and Romania.

1943 – The U.S. Army Air Force began attacking Germany's secret weapons bases in Operation Crossbow.

1944 – Allied troops occupied Ravenna, Italy.

1945 – Flight 19 was lost in the Bermuda Triangle. Flight 19 was the designation of 5 TBM Avenger torpedo bombers that disappeared during a US Navy authorized overwater navigation training flight from Naval Air Station Fort Lauderdale.

Grumman TBF Avengers

Photo courtesy US Navy archives

1952 - Regarded amongst the most influential comedy programs in history, The Abbott and Costello Show starring comedians Bud Abbott and Lou Costello, debuted on television.

1952 – The Great Smog of 1952: A cold smog descended upon London that today is seen as the worst air pollution event in the history of the United Kingdom. It was responsible for at least 12,000 deaths.

Nelson's Column during the Great Smog of 1952

Photo by N T Stobbs

1955 – The American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations merged to form the AFL-CIO.

1955 – E.D. Nixon and Rosa Parks led the Montgomery Bus Boycott. (Give 'em hell, Rosa!)

1957 – Sukarno (Kusno Sosrodihardjo) expelled all people of Dutch descent from Indonesia.

1958 – Subscriber Trunk Dialling was inaugurated in the UK by Queen Elizabeth II when she spoke to the Lord Provost in a call from Bristol to Edinburgh.

1958 – The Preston Bypass, Britain's first stretch of motorway, opened to traffic for the first time. It is now part of the M6 and M55 motorways.

1964 - For his heroism in battle earlier in the year, Captain Roger Donlon of Saugerties, New York was awarded the first Medal of Honor of The Vietnam War.

1974 - A sad day. The final episode of Monty Python's Flying Circus aired on the BBC. (There's never been anything like it since.)

1976 – The United Nations General Assembly adopted Pakistan's resolution on security of non-Nuclear States.

1977 – Egypt broke off diplomatic relations with Syria, Libya, Algeria, Iraq and South Yemen. The move was in retaliation for the Declaration of Tripoli against Egypt.

1978 – The Soviet Union signed a "friendship treaty" with the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. (NO. Don't do it, guys. it's a trick!)

1979 – Sonia Johnson was formally excommunicated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for her outspoken criticism of the church concerning the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

1983 – The Military Junta in Argentina was formally dissolved.

1983 – ICIMOD was established and inaugurated with its headquarters in Kathmandu, Nepal. It was legitimised through an Act of Parliament in Nepal before year's end.

1993 – The mayor of Vienna, Helmut Zilk, was wounded by a letter bomb.

1995 – The Sri Lankan government announced the conquest of the Tamil stronghold of Jaffna.

2003 - Johannes Heesters, the world's oldest living actor, turned 100. Today was his 106th birthday. (I wish him well.)

2005 – The magnitude 6.8 Lake Tanganyika Earthquake caused significant damage, mostly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

2005 – The Civil Partnership Act came into effect in the United Kingdom, and the first civil partnership was registered there.

2006 – Commodore Frank Bainimarama overthrew the government in Fiji.

2007 – The Westroads Mall Massacre: A gunman opened fire with a semi-automatic rifle at an Omaha, Nebraska mall. He killed 8 people before taking his own life.

2008 – Human remains previously found in 1991 were finally identified by Russian and American scientists as those of Tsar Nicholas II.

1060 – Béla I of Hungary was crowned king of Hungary. He would reign for only 2 years and died when his throne's canopy collapsed. It is suspected that the collapse may not have been an accident.

1240 – The Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev fell to the Mongol army under Batu Khan.

1534 – Over 200 Spanish settlers led by conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar founded what is now the city of Quito, Ecuador.

1648 – Pride's Purge: Colonel Pride of the New Model Army purged the Long Parliament of MPs sympathetic to King Charles I of England, in order for the King's trial to go ahead.

Colonel Pride refusing admission to the Presbyterian members of the Long Parliament.
Engraving by Unbekannt (c. 1652)

1745 – The army of Bonnie Prince Charlie (Charles Edward Stewart) began its retreat during The Second Jacobite Rising.

1768 – The first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica was published.

1790 – The U.S. Congress moved from New York City to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1849 – American abolitionist Moses (Harriet Tubman) escaped from slavery. She would go on to become the most famous conductor in The Underground Railway and was known for never having lost a "passenger".

Harriet Tubman (circa 1870)

Photo by H. B. Lindsley

1865 – The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, banning slavery, was ratified.

1877 – The very first edition of the Washington Post was published.

1884 – The Washington Monument in Washington D.C. was completed.

1897 – London became the world's first city to institute licencing for taxicabs. (And the London cabbies are still terrorizing their passengers to this day!)

1907 – The Monongah Mine Disaster: In Monongah, West Virginia a coal mine explosion took place that has been described as the worst mining disaster in American History. The explosion was thought to have been caused by the ignition of firedamp (methane), which ignited the coal dust in mines number 6 and 8. 362 men and boys are believed to have died to this day the exact death toll remains unknown.

1916 – During World War I, the Central Powers captured Bucharest.

1917 – Finland declared its independence from Russia.

1917 – The Halifax Explosion: The city of Halifax, Nova Scotia was devastated by the huge detonation of the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship fully loaded with wartime explosives, which accidentally collided with the Norwegian SS Imo in "The Narrows" section of the Halifax Harbour. Over 2,000 people were killed by flying debris, the resulting fires, or collapsing buildings and it is estimated that more than 9,000 others were injured. This is still the world's largest man made accidental explosion.

View of the Halifax Explosion mushroom cloud possibly taken from Bedford Basin at the head of the Halifax Narrows looking to the southeast around 15 to 20 seconds after the blast from 13 miles (21 km) away.

Photographer unknown

1921 – The Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed in London between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the de facto Irish Republic. It concluded The Irish War of Independence.

1922 – One year to the day after the signing of The Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Irish Free State came into existence.

1933 – U.S. federal judge John M. Woolsey ruled that the James Joyce's novel Ulysses was not obscene.

1941 – World War II: Britain reluctantly declared war on Finland in support of the Soviet Union during The Continuation War.

1947 – US President Harry S Truman dedicated the Everglades National Park in Florida. (One of the few things he ever managed to get right.)

1957 – Project Vanguard: A launchpad explosion of Vanguard TV3 thwarted the first United States attempt to launch a satellite into Earth orbit.

1962 - Storks R Us arrived at Gus And Greta's house with fussy little Margaret. (Happy 47th, Maggie!)

1965 – Pakistan's Islamic Ideology Advisory Committee recommended that Islamic Studies be made a compulsory subject for Muslim students from primary to graduate level.

1969 – The Altamont Incident took place in Northern California during a Rolling Stones concert at the Altamont Speedway in California. Marred by violence, 4 people died including 18 year old Meredith Hunter who was stabbed to death by Hells Angels' members that had been hired as site security by the Stones.

1971 – Pakistan severed diplomatic relations with India following New Delhi's recognition of Bangladesh.

1975 – The Balcombe Street Siege: An IRA Active Service Unit took a couple hostage in Balcombe Street, London during a standoff with London's Metropolitan Police Service. The seige lasted until December 12th and finally ended with the surrender of the 4 IRA volunteers and the release of their 2 hostages. The events were televised and watched by millions.

1978 – Spain approved its current constitution in a referendum.

1982 – The Droppin Well Bombing: The Irish National Liberation Army detonated a bomb in Ballykelly, Northern Ireland that killed 11 British soldiers and 6 civilians.

1988 – Music legend Roy Orbison died of a heart attack.

1989 – The École Polytechnique Massacre: A gunman armed with a a semi-automatic assault rifle killed 14 young women and wounded 14 other people on a Montreal, Quebec campus before finally turning the gun on himself and ending his own meaningless existence on the planet.

1991 – In Croatia, forces of the Yugoslav People's Army bombarded Dubrovnik after laying siege to the city since the previous May.

1992 – In Ayodhya, India, extremist right wing Hindu activists belonging to the nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party and allied organizations demolished the Babri Masjid, a 16th century mosque which they claimed was built upon the birth place of Lord Rama.

A view of the Babri Mosque, pre-1992

Photo by Shaid Khan

1997 – A Russian Antonov An-124 transport cargo plane crashed into an apartment complex near Irkutsk, Siberia, killing 67 people.

An 124-100

Photo by David Ramirez

1998 – Hugo Chávez Frías, Venezuelan military officer and politician, was elected President of Venezuela with the largest percentage of the popular vote (56.2%) in 4 decades. (Well. I guess the Venezuelans brought it all upon themselves then, didn't they.)

1999 - Digitally Imported (http://www.di.fm/), one of the largest internet radio stations dedicated to electronic dance music, was created by Ari Shohat.

2005 – Several dozen villagers were shot dead by the People's Armed Police during protests in Dongzhou, China.

2006 – NASA revealed photographs taken by Mars Global Surveyor suggesting the presence of liquid water on Mars.

This image, taken by Mars Global Surveyor, spans a region about 1,500 m (4,921 ft) across. It shows gullies on the walls of Mars' Newton Basin in Sirenum Terra. Similar channels on Earth are formed by flowing water, but on Mars the temperature is normally too cold and the atmosphere too thin to sustain liquid water. Nevertheless, many scientists hypothesize that liquid groundwater can sometimes surface on Mars, erode gullies and channels, and pool at the bottom before freezing and evaporating.

Photo courtesy of NASA

2008 – The 2008 Greek Riots broke out following the murder of a 15 year old boy, Alexandros Grigoropoulos, by a police officer.

Hang on all, there was a hell of a lot that went down on Decenber 7th:

43 BC – The great Roman orator and prose stylist Marcus Tullius Cicero was assassinated.

1696 – Connecticut Route 108, the third oldest highway in Connecticut was laid out to Trumbull.

1724 – The Tumult of Thorn: Religious unrest was followed by the execution of nine Protestant citizens and the mayor of Thorn (Toruń) by Polish authorities.

1732 – The first Royal Opera House opened at Covent Garden in London. It was destroyed by fire in 1808.

The auditorium of the first theatre drawn shortly before it burned down.

Drawn by Augustus Pugin and Thomas Rowlandson for Ackermanns' Microcosm of London (1808-11)

1776 – Marquis de Lafayette attempted to enter the American military as a major general.

1787 – Delaware became the first state to ratify the US Constitution.

1808 - James Madison was elected the 4th President of the United States.

1815 - Michel Ney, Marshal of France, was executed by firing squad after being convicted of treason by the Bourbon Restoration government of Louis XVIII for his support of Napoleon Bonaparte during The Hundred Days.

1817 - Died this day: William Bligh, the British naval officer who lost HMS Bounty to mutineers on May 28th, 1788.

1836 - Martin Van Buren was elected the 8th President of the United States.

1842 - The first concert of the New York Philharmonic took place in the Apollo Rooms on lower Broadway before an audience of 600. Led by American born conductor Ureli Corelli Hill, the concert opened with Beethoven's Symphony No. 5.

1862 - The Battle of Hartsville was fought in northern Tennessee at the opening of The Stones River Campaign. The result was a lopsided Confederate victory.

1862 – The Battle of Prairie Grove was fought in Arkansas. The battle itself was a tactical stalemate but it essentially secured northwest Arkansas for the Union.

1889 - Gilbert & Sullivan's Gondoliers premiered at the Savoy Theatre in London and ran for 554 performances (at that time the fifth longest running piece of musical theatre in history) before closing on 30 June 1891. This was the 12th comic opera collaboration of 14 between Gilbert and Sullivan.

1895 - The Battle of Amba Alagi was fought. During The First Italo-Ethiopian War the Rasses Makonnen, Welle Betul and Mangesha Yohannes commanded an assault of Emperor Menelik's vanguard that annihilated the Italian forces.

1900 – Max Planck, in his home on the outskirts of Berlin, discovered the law of black body emission.

1909 - Dr. Leo Bakeland of Yonkers, New York patented Bakelite. It was the first thermosetting plastic.

1915 - Born this day: Eli Wallach. Best known for his portrayal of the character Tuco in the 1966 western film classic The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly. (Aged 94 and apparently doing quite well, thank you.)

1916 - David Lloyd George became Prime Minister of Britain.

1917 – The United States became the 13th country to declare war on Austria-Hungary during World War I.

1925 - Noel Coward's play Easy Virtue made its New York premiere.

1925 - A New York icon, The Biltmore Theater, opened at 261 W. 47th St.

1926 - Gas refrigeration was patented.

1934 - Wiley Post discovered the jet stream. (A case can be made that this was first detected in 1922 by Japanese meteorologist Wasaburo Ooishi.)

1930 – W1XAV in Boston, Massachusetts broadcast video from the CBS radio orchestra program, The Fox Trappers. The broadcast also included the first television commercial in the United States, an advertisement for I.J. Fox Furriers who sponsored the radio show. (Whoa! A TV show with only 1 commercial. man, those were the days!)

1937 - Dutch Minister Romme proclaimed that, "For the stability of the nation, married women are forbidden to work outside of the home." (I'd like to see him try and get away with saying that today. )

1939 - At only the age of 36, Lou Gehrig was elected to The National Baseball Hall of Fame.

Sunday December 7th, 1941 – The Pearl Harbor Attack: In the pre-dawn hours a Japanese naval strike force consisting of 6 aircraft carriers under the command of admiral Chuichi Nagumo arrived at their assigned position some 275 miles north of the Hawaiian Islands. An unprovoked surprise attack was then launched, without a declaration of war, on the US Pacific Fleet moored at the naval base in Pearl Harbor, along with its defending Army Air Forces and Marine air forces.

The US losses in the attack were:
4 battleships sunk
4 battleships damaged including 1 run aground
2 destroyers sunk, 1 damaged
1 other ship sunk, 3 damaged
3 cruisers damaged
188 aircraft destroyed
155 aircraft damaged

And most importantly:
2,345 military personnel killed
1,247 military personnel wounded
57 civilians killed
35 civilians wounded

The Japanese losses were:
4 midget submarines sunk
1 midget submarine run aground
27 aircraft destroyed
55 airmen killed
9 submariners killed

Zeroes of the second wave preparing to take off from Shokaku for Pearl Harbor

Photo believed to be from the Japanese Naval Archives

Photograph from a Japanese aircraft of Pearl Harbor including Battleship Row at the beginning of the attack. The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on the USS West Virginia

Photo believed to be from the Japanese Naval Archives

Sailors in a motor launch rescue a survivor from the water alongside the sunken USS West Virginia (BB-48) during the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor. USS Tennessee (BB-43) is inboard of the sunken battleship. Note extensive distortion of West Virginia's lower midships superstructure, caused by torpedoes that exploded below that location.

Photo courtesy US Navy

The forward magazines of the U.S. Navy battleship USS Arizona (BB-39) explode shortly after 08:00 hrs during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (My cousin is still on board that ship)

Photo courtesy US Navy

1942 - The Bell P-63 Kingcobra took to the air for the first time.

The Bell P-63 Kingcobra in flight (circa 1943)

Photo courtesy US Air Force archives

1945 - Raytheon received a patent for the microwave oven, created by engineer Percy Spencer.

1946 – A fire at the Winecoff Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia killed 119 people, this is still the deadliest hotel fire in U.S. history.

1949 – During The Chinese Civil War, Chiang Kai Shek and the governing Kuomintang regime were forced to flee from Nanking to Taipei on the island of Formosa (Taiwan).

1962 – Prince Rainier III of Monaco revised the principality's constitution, devolving some of his power to advisory and legislative councils.

1965 – Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras simultaneously lifted mutual excommunications that had been in place since 1054.

1966 – A fire at an army barracks in Erzurum, Turkey killed 68 people.

1970 – The first ever general election, on the basis of direct adult franchise, was held in Pakistan for 313 National Assembly seats.

1971 – Pakistan President Yahya Khan announced the formation of a Coalition Government at Centre with Nurul Amin as Prime Minister and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto as Vice-Prime Minister.

1972 – Apollo 17, was launched. It was the first night launch of a U.S. human spaceflight and the sixth and final lunar landing mission of The Apollo Program. The crew took the famous photograph known as "The Blue Marble" as they left the Earth.

Apollo 17 lift off at 12:33 a.m. EST on December 7th, 1972

Photo courtesy of NASA

1975 – Indonesian forces began a bloody invasion of East Timor.

1982 – A Texas murderer became the first person to be executed by lethal injection in the United States.

1983 – An Iberia Airlines Boeing 727 collided with an Aviaco DC-9 that had accidentally entered the runway as the Iberia flight was taking off in dense fog at Madrid Barajas International Airport. 93 people were killed in the mishap.

1987 – Pacific Southwest Airlines Flt. 1771 crashed near Paso Robles, California, killing all 43 on board. This after a disgruntled passenger shot his ex-boss traveling on the flight and then shot both pilots before turning the weapon on himself.

1988 – The Spitak Earthquake: In Soviet Armenia an earthquake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale killed nearly 25,000 and injured another 15,000. The quake left upwards of 400,000 homeless.

1988 – Yasser Arafat recognized the right of Israel to exist. (Doesn't mean the murderous pinhead agreed with that right. just that he recognized it.)

1989 - In the third and final installment of their historic boxing trilogy, Sugar Ray Leonard and Roberto Duran fought an incredibly boring bout in Las Vegas Leonard retained the WBC Super Middleweight championship of the world with a 12 round decision.

1993 – The Long Island Rail Road Massacre: A passenger pulled a gun and murdered 6 people while injuring 19 others on the LIRR in Nassau County, New York.

1994 – Norfolk Southern ended its steam excursion program. This was the last time that the famed Norfolk and Western 611 was under steam.

Norfolk & Western Railway's #611 (a 4-8-4) in 1993

Photo by Jet Lowe, courtesy United States National Park Service

1995 – The Galileo spacecraft arrived at Jupiter and began taking photos, a little more than 6 years after it was launched by Space Shuttle Atlantis during Mission STS-34.

The four largest moons of Jupiter, as photographed by Galileo

Photo/images courtesy NASA

1999 – The RIAA filed a lawsuit against the Napster file sharing client, on charges of copyright infringement.

2003 – The Conservative Party of Canada was officially recognized after the merger of the Canadian Reform Party and Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. (It was originally going to be named the Conservative Reform Alliance Party until someone noticed what the acronym would be. )

2005 – Rigoberto Alpizar, a passenger on American Airlines Flt. 924 who is alleged to have claimed he had a bomb, was shot and killed by a team of U.S. federal air marshals at Miami International Airport in a case that, to this day, has the overbearing stench of a cover up to it.

2006 – A tornado struck Kensal Green in northwest London, seriously damaging approximately 150 properties.

2007 – The Hebei Spirit Oil Spill began in South Korea after a crane barge being towed by tug collided with the VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier) Hebei Spirit.

Allison Collection Photos December, 1943

Magazine Bites the Mud, 12/3/1943. Somewhere in Italy – “Butterfingers” don’t go on the Italian front these days because anything dropped in the mud that covers the countryside is ruined. Red Cross worker Nancy Gres of Narberth, Pa., stoops to pick up a mud-covered magazine dropped as she was making the rounds of an evacuation hospital with books, cigarettes and magazines. Credit: (Photo by Bert Brandt, ACME Correspondent for War Picture Pool)

Prayer for Lost Comrades, 12/19/1943. Italy – Close to the graves they tend, Allied Fifth Army soldiers bow their heads in prayers led by Capt. Christ A. Lehne, Chaplain of Fredericksburg, Texas. In the background, other service men erect crosses and tidy the final resting places of Americans who died in battle. Credit: (ACME)

FAMOUS FATHER MEETS FIGHTING SON, 12/4/1943. NORTH AFRICA – As he returns an RAF officer’s salute, President Roosevelt has eyes only for his son, Col. Elliot Roosevelt, (left) Commanding Officer of a reconnaissance unit, who greets the American Chief Executive at an airfield in North Africa. Driver of the Presidential jeep is Cpl. Arthur S. Rice, of Greensburg, MO who also had Gen. Eisenhower and Lt. Gen. Carl Spaatz as passengers. The RAF officer is Wing Comdr. Eric L. Fuller, Deputy Commander of a photo unit. Credit: Signal Corps photo via OWI Radiophoto from ACME

ROOSEVELT REVIEWS GUARD IN MALTA, 12/14/1943. MALTA – President Franklin D. Roosevelt, (seated in front), and Field Marshal Lord Gort, (seated in rear), Commander-In-Chief of Malta, as they rode along in a jeep to review a Guard of Honor, during the President’s recent visit to the Mediterranean Island. The Guard was made up of a RAF Unit, 50 British Marines, 50 Royal Navy men, and 100 Maltese troops. The jeep is one of three presented to the British by Gen. Dwight Eisenhower and the vehicle bears the name, “Husky” Credit: OWI Radiophoto from ACME

”SUPERMEN” OF THE EAST AND WEST, 12/13/1943. SINGAPORE – Two Japanese officers lead a party of German soldiers on a sight-seeing tour of the great Jap naval base at Singapore. Base is under the command of General Yamashita and a number of Nazi soldiers are stationed there, forming part of the garrison at the former British “Gibraltar of the East.” Credit: ACME

War’s Devastation, 12/221943. Italy – Here’s what was left of the town of Mignano when American troops marched in after pounding out the Germans. Debris clogs every open area and in many cases it is impossible to tell from the ruins what a house looked like before it was smashed. Credit (ACME Photo by Sherman Montrose, War Pool Correspondent)

Platoon Sgt. K.L. Smith, (right), USMC, of Cumberland, MD, explains the mechanism, , 12/30/1943.

What's In A Breed?, 12/7/1943. ENGLAND – Although his breed is uncertain, this spunky terrier is chock full of the stuff that heroes are make of. Called “Salvo” by the Airmen for whom he is a mascot, the dog goes on operational flights and makes parachute jumps whenever his masters take to the silk. Landing after a jump, Salvo plants his feet firmly on the ground, to resist the pull of his billowing chute, until someone comes along to unharness him.Credit: U.S. Signal Corps photo from ACME

Her Majesty The Queen, 12/17/1943. MAKIN ISLAND – Queen Tabonou, of the Gilbertese Natives, gets a light for her cigarette from Lt. Bruno Raymond, Royal Australian Naval Volunteer Reserves, who was born in the central Pacific islands. The Queen hadn’t seen Raymond since he was a baby. He “Visited his home town” after the allies captured Makin.Credit: ACME

WITH FLINT AND STEEL, 12/3/1943. CAMP GRANT, ILL.—Kathryn N. Butler, Hudson, Wis., first Indian WAC to be stationed at Camp Grant, Ill., where she works in the hospital’s diet kitchen, demonstrates how a modern Indian starts a fire with flint and steel—by using a cigarette lighter.Credit: Signal Corps photo from Acme

WOUNDED NURSE CARRIES ON, 12/29/1943. AT A FIELD HOSPITAL SOMEWHERE IN ITALY—Lt. Cordelia E. Cooks, first Army nurse in Italy to be wounded by enemy fire, sustaining a shrapnel wound, refuses to take time out to recover. With her arm bandaged she attends a patient, Pfc. Joseph Uhrin, Latrobe, Pa., member of a field artillery unit on the day after she received her wound. Lt. Cooks is from Ft. Thomas, Kentucky.Credit: Signal Corps photo from Acme

TURKEY IN THE STRAW, 12/24/1943. LONDONDERRY, NORTHERN IRELAND—It’s “catch-me-if-you-can” for this poor bird as he tries to evade a group of Yanks in Londonderry, who are going after their Christmas Dinner “on the hoof”. Pfc James E. Fuller of Bothan, Ala., starts up the haystack after the bird, with assistance from: Pfc Alfred V. Samson, New Bedford, Mass. Cpl Jesse C. McConnell, Clayton, Ga. and Pfc John a Hermanski, Ipswich, Mass. The boys are Marines.Credit: U.S. Marine Corps photo from Acme

No Title., 12/10/1943. ITALY—You don’t need to ask a unit of Japanese infantry in Italy what they think of the Axis. Daily, they have been giving their lives for Uncle Sam in rough mountain action against the Germans. The U.S. Army unit, which is made up of men who are…theater. Before Pearl Harbor…were in the National Guard in Hawaii, and now they are putting their training to work for America. These photos were taken during a breathing spell when the fighting Japanese-Americans waged continuous warfare for eight days running. Pfc. Isami Tsuda eagerly scans the Honolulu Star bulletin of August 31 for news of home. Not until the Japanese-Americans pulled out of the fighting line for a rest were they able to get any news or mail from their homes. It was the first they’d received since landing in Italy.Credit: Acme

DECORATIVE TOUCH, 12/5/1943. ITALY—A vast improvement is effected in the weird statuary of the royal gardens of Caserta, italy, by seven sightseeing WACS who are (left to right) Pvt. Jeanne Zientek, of Buffalo, N.Y. Pvt. Jerry Horne, Lucedale, Miss Pvt. Betty Hoefler, of Buffalo, N.Y. Pvt. Laura Howleson, of Pittsburgh, Pa. Pvt. Zanaida Johnson, of New York City Pvt. Rena Hicks, of Louisville, Ky., and Pvt. Ruby Hale, of Wharton, Tex.Credit: Acme photo by Bert Brandt, War Pool Correspondent

DISPLAY OF CAPTURED SOUVENIRS, 12/9/1943. MAKIN ISLAND—Back from the battle front with their captured souvenirs are the men of the 165th Infantry, the old “Fighting 69th”. Pictured are a Japanese flag and Japanese marine insignia taken at [illegible] grove, Makin Island.Credit: Official U.S. Army Signal Corps photo from Acme

Hunting the Same Prey, 12/11/1943. Italy—An American officer points out the positions of German forces to an Italian commander whose unit has joined Allied fighters in Italy. Lt. Col. Andrew Price, of Fort Worth, Texas, is at left. Today, an Italian general whose troops are fighting alongside American and British units in the Mignano sector charged that the Nazis are executing. All captured Italian officers are traitors. Credit: ACME radiophoto, by Sherman Montrose, War Pool Correspondent, via U.S. Army Signal Corps radiotelephoto.

Axis Attack on Bari, 12/16/1943. In the shadow of an anti-aircraft gun, Allied ships burn furiously in the Southern Italian port of Bari, following a German air raid on Dec. 2, 1943. Secretary of War Stimson today announced that two ammunitions ships were hit and the resultant explosion caused spreading fires which destroyed or damaged a number of Allied cargo ships and small harbor craft. There were an estimated 1,000 casualties, including 37 American naval personnel. Credit Army Signal Corps Photo From (ACME)

Axis Attack on Bari, 12/16/1943. Allied ships burn furiously in the Southern Italian port of Bari following a German air raid on Dec. 2, 1943. Secretary of War Stimson today announced that two ammunitions ships were hit, and the resultant explosion caused spreading fires which destroyed or damaged a number of Allied cargo ships and small harbor craft. There were an estimated 1,000 casualties, including 37 American naval personnel. U.S. Army Signal Corps Photo From (ACME)

Carry On, Mates, 12/28/1943. A U.S. flying fortress (lower right) is brought to earth, its tail piece following, as other of the giant planes continue to unleash bombs over Bremen, Germany. The 8th Army Air Force bombers leave their contrails in the flak filled sky, where more devastation goes hurtling downward than is tossed up from Nazi guns. Credit: U.S. Army Air Force photo from ACME.

Aided By His Own Countryman, 12/28/1943. Italy – As a wounded French soldier hobbles out of an evacuation medical tent somewhere in Italy, a French woman ambulance driver is there to meet him. She will speed him to a rear medical base for treatment. Credit (U.S. Signal Corps Radio From ACME)

Death of a Flying Fortress, 12/28/1943. Smoke pouring from its motors and part of its tail assembly shot away, a flying fortress hurtles from a formation of the big bombers speeding towards Bremen, Germany. The rest of the U.S. 8th Army Air Force planes soar onward, for no help can be given the fallen eagle. Credit: U.S. Army Air Force photo from ACME.

Ready for a “Nice, Friendly Chat.”, 12/28/1943. Italy—General Mark W. Clark is very interested in these guests. They are German prisoners-of-war just brought to headquarters and undoubtedly the Fifth Army Commander will follow the rules of a successful host and ask questions about his guests’ doings rather than talk about himself. Credit: OWI radiophoto from ACME.

Soup-Strainer and Beaver de Luxe, 12/29/1943. Oakland, Calif.—The Italian Army with its General “Electric Whiskers” has nothing on the U.S. Marine Corps which boasts its own Gunnery Sgt. Carl Otto Ostrom, just returned from the South Pacific and somewhat irked that he had no chance to tangle with the Japs, a leatherneck since 1917 and veteran of World War I, and having seen service in China, Guam, Guadalcanal, and numerous other places, Ostrom is resting at the U.S. Naval Hospital, Oakland, Calif., with a slight case of “feeling worn out.” Born at Cambridge, Mass., 47 years ago, he calls his home the Marine Corps. Credit: Official Marine Corps photo, ACME.

Christmas at the Front, 12/29/1943. Italy—Between rounds in the hills above San Vittore, this American gun crew with the Fifth Army snatches a moment to celebrate Christmas. Clustered around a tiny tree set up behind their barking cannon, the boys drink a toast from their canteens and exchange good wishes. Credit: U.S. Signal Corps radiotelephoto-ACME.

No Excursion, This, 12/ 11/1943. Italy—Italian soldiers are living up to the “Rome or Death” slogan lettered on their vehicle which travels to the front. Fighting alongside British and American troops, they hate the Germans as strongly as the Allies and with good reason, for an Italian general reports that the Nazis kill all the native soldiers they capture, calling them traitors. Credit: Signal Corps radiotelephoto from ACME.

Assisting Wounded Commander, 12/31/1943. Ortona, Italy—A tank commander, who was shot when he opened a turret to check firing results, is led to a dressing station by a medical attendant. The two men walk through the littered streets of battleworn Ortona, which fell to troops of the British Eighth Army after eight days of fighting. Credit: OWI radiophoto from ACME.

German Prisoners in Yugoslavia, 12/27/1943. Yugoslavia—Partisan detachment of troops, under the command of Tito, leads a group of German prisoners through a liberated Yugoslavian village. Villagers stop to stare at their conquered enemies. Credit: OWI radiophoto from ACME

Veni, Vidi, Vici, 12/2/1943. Norway—Tiny puffs of smoke rise from bombs bursting on a Molybdenum Mine in the mountains of Norway. Germany’s most important source of the vital metal. Nestled on the mountainside, almost obscured by the vast, snow-covered rock, the target was a difficult one to find, and a still more difficult mark to hit. But raiders of the U.S. Eighth Air Force found the minute target, made three trial sighting runs overhead, and then bombardiers sent their eggs down for a “bull’s eye.” Credit: U.S. Army Air Forces photo via OWI-ACME.

She Stuck It Out, 12/22/1943. Italy—When American troops took over the town of Mignano, they were surprised to see this old Italian woman emerge from the rubble and debris that clogged the streets. She had been living in her home through weeks of shelling and bombing, refusing to be driven from her few prized possessions. The Germans left the Italians very little when they evacuated the area, taking everything of value with them. Credit: ACME photo by Sherman Montrose, War Pool Correspondent.

Precious Burden, 12/22/1943. Mignano, Italy—Walking unsteadily through the ruined streets of Mignano, this old Italian woman carries a precious burden atop her head. The three huge slabs of wood, found in the bomb debris that clutters the town, will be used to provide fuel for her cookstove. Credit: Photo by Sherman Montrose, ACME photographer for War Picture Pool.

“Flak Garden” Doesn’t Stop Fortresses, 12/9/1943. This photo, just released in the United States, shows a formation of flying fortresses of the U.S. Army Air Forces, as they passed through clouds of bursting anti-aircraft shells, on their way to bomb the Nazi communications center at Munster, Germany, last Armistice Day. Credit: U.S. Army Air Forces photo from ACME.

Conversation Piece in Italy, 12/9/1943. A trio of Yanks discuss the fortunes of war by a bomb crater behind the front lines in Italy. Left to Right are: Cpl. F.C. Griffith, Mansfield, Texas Pfc. Doc Owens, Meigs, Ga. and Pvt. Eldon D. Long, Dallas, Texas. Credit (ACME)

No Title, 12/16/1943. Allied ships burn furiously in harbor at Bari after attack & air raid by Nazi bombers Dec. 2. Most of precious cargo of ships had been removed prior to attack. U.S. Signal Corps Photo from ACME

Softening Up the Enemy, 12/16/1943. ITALY – Dark smoke marks Allied bomb hits on German positions across the Sangro River (foreground) as a terrific aerial “softening-up” precedes an 8th Army advance across the Italian waterway. Looking toward Santa Maria the river, crossed by the British on November 25, can barely be seen in the foreground. Credit Line (ACME)

Dropping Shells on Nazi Headquartersf, 12/16/1943. CONCA CASALE, ITALY – A towering column of white smoke marks an exploding American shell, just beyond the church (note steeple), which houses the German headquarters in Conca Casale, just North of Venafro. In foreground, (photo above), U.S. snipers lie ready to pick off any of the Nazis who try to escape from the bombarded building. Credit Line (ACME Photo by Bert Brandt for the War Picture Pool transmitted by Signal Corps Radiotelephoto)

“Excellent Bombing”, 12/3/1943. LANCIANO, ITALY – Allied bombardiers won another round of praise after their recent bombing of roads and enemy-defended positions on the Sangro River front. The marksmanship behind the bomb bursts shown here, at Lanciano, won a report of “excellent bombing” from the Eighth Army. Photo radioed to New York from Algiers. Credit Line (ACME Radiophoto)

Nazis Desecrate Graveyard, 12/2/1943. BASTIA, CORSICA – A native woman weeps as she views the destruction done by Nazi Demolition squads to this graveyard in Bastia, where members of her family are buried. Germans ruthlessly destroyed buildings and installations in Corsica as they retreated into the corner, where they were beaten by the Allies. Credit Line (OWI Photo from ACME)

Corvette Versus Sub, 12/5/1943. IN THE ATLANTIC – When a British corvette tangles with a Nazi sub, it usually means plenty of customers for Davey Jones – and, more often than not, the boys in the “locker” are wearing Nazi uniforms. This sub, meeting the corvette HMS Starwort in the Atlantic, was brought to the top by depth charges. In upper photo, the crew lines the deck of the undersea fighter. In lower photo, Nazi sailors dive from the sinking sub to be picked up by the enemy vessel. Credit Line – WP—(ACME)

Rolling to Rome, 12/4/1943. ITALY – Sherman tanks and carriers move up as mortar fire explodes in the Sangro River bed where the British 8th Army has knifed through to secondary German defenses. As the Americans stubbornly beat back the enemy in the western part of Italy, the English are doing an equally brilliant job of crushing the Nazis on the Adriatic flank. Credit (OWI Radiophoto from ACME)

Gosh!, 12/15/1943. ITALY -- …is all that Sgt. Frank Friel, of Portland, Me., can say as pretty WAC Pvt. Rena Hicks, of Louisville, Ky., favors him as an escort for a drive in a picturesque carriage around Caserta, Italy. Credit (ACME Photo by Bert Brandt, War Pool Correspondent)

In the Nick of Time, 12/20/1943. BERLIN—Berliners had the right idea when they decided to remove the exhibits form the Zifghaus (Army Museum) last Wednesday because allied bombings hit the structure the next night. Here young boys remove one of the old suits of armour on a stretcher. Credit: ACME Radiophoto from Stockholm.

Wounded in Battle, 12/29/1943. Arawe, New Britain – Wounded in the fighting at Arawe, a stretcher-borne Yank is carried through the shallow water on the island’s shore. A group of Yanks work on the littered beach at right. Latest reports from New Britain indicate that our troops have pushed to within striking distance of the Cape Gloucester airstrips, 50 miles southeast of Arawe Credit: -WP-(Photo by Thomas L. Shafer, ACME Correspondent for War Pool)

Even the Children Helped, 12/10/1943. CORSICA—Proudly bearing the tricolor of France which he rescued from a ruined building, a youngster of Bastia parades past a pile of wrecked German Machines on the quayside. Young and old helped to bout the Nazi invader from the island of Corsica, and the victory over the Germans was one of the people. Credit: OWI photo from ACME.

Heading for Gelsenkirchen, 12/31/1943. SOMEWHERE OVER GERMANY—Despite a badly shot up left wing, this flying fortress maintained its place in the formation on the way to bomb Gelsenkirchen, Germany, a vital communications center. This was one of several raids on Gelsenkirchen, which lies 27 miles west of Portmund, on the Duisburg-Hamm Railway. Credit: U.S. ARMY AIR FORCES PHOTO from ACME.

Blowing Up Morale, 12/11/1943.BERLIN—German workers stand around looking glum as a Nazi military band gives an impromptu, morale-boosting concert, outside a large factory that suffered serious damage in the recent bombings of Berlin. Photo, radioed to New York today (Dec. 11th), was obtained through a neutral source. Credit Line (ACME Radiophoto)

Famous Berlin Church Damaged, 12/13/1943. BERLIN—One of the unavoidable casualties in the all-out allied bombings of Berlin is the Kaiser Wilhelmgedaechtnis Kirche (memorial church), massive Gothic church, on the city’s famed Kurfirstendam, The tall Spires remain standing and most of the damage seems to have been done to the main roof and windows. Photo received by radio from Stockholm this morning. Credit Line (ACME Radiophoto)

On the Winter Line, 12/30/1943. Artillery shells and mortar turn this Italian battlefield into a smoking inferno as American fighters push steadily ahead, determined to pierce Germany’s winter line of defense. Latest reports from the Italian front indicate that fighting is still fierce in the northern sector as French Moroccan troops bout the Nazis from the mountainous country. Credit: ACME photo by Bert Brandt, War Pool Correspondent.

Berlin Air Raid Warden, 12/13/1943. BERLIN—A young girl, obviously still in her teens who is probably on of Berlin’s hastily enrolled air raid wardens, rides through the city’s blitzed streets on a bicycle the morning after an all-out Allied raid. She is equipped with a helment, gas mask and overalls. Note Swastika on her arm and pile of debris in the background. Photo received through a neutral source. Credit: ACME.

TENSE MOMENT ON SHIPBOARD, 12/28/1943. This photo, taken aboard a transport carrying U.S. troops and Red Cross girls to one of the battle fronts, was taken during a tense moment during an attack by an enemy submarine. The U-boat was sunk or driven off before it had a chance to do any damage.Credit: Red Cross Photo from Acme

RAILROAD BED BECOMES HIGHWAY, 12/19/1943. SOMEWHERE IN ITALY—Their few possessions strapped to the backs of mules, Italian civilians lead the beasts along a railroad bed that now serves as a highway. Wrecked by the Germans, the rocky road bed was converted to a highway by the Allies as they made their way north, in pursuit of the Germans.Credit: Acme

MERRY CHRISTMAS FROM THE YANKS, 12/26/1943.ITALY—The Christmas spirit is not swallowed up in war in Italy, either, where Sgt. Patsy Di Custanzo, of New York City gives candy to native youngsters in Caserta. Although goodies are scarce in their country, the Italian children patiently await their turn for the Yankee gifts.Credit: OWI Radiophoto from Acme

INDIAN TROOPS FIGHT WITH 8TH ARMY, 12/20/1943. ITALY—An Indian Bren gunner, (second from left), gives covering fire, as Indian and British troops of the 8th Army advance on the Italian Front. At the time this photo was taken, the town and this emplacement were under heavy German mortar fire. This photo flashed to New York by radio from Algiers, today.Credit: OWI Radiophoto from Acme

Allies Blast Tarawa, 12/16/1943. This photo, taken from the air as Allied air and sea forces bombarded the islands of the Tarawa group, shows Jap installations burning fiercely on one of the islands. In the battle, one of the bloodiest in history, U.S. Forces suffered many casualties. Credit: (ACME) (WP)

We Nab 20 Jap Warships, 12/6/1943. While smaller ships scuttle, beetle-like for the open sea, flames rise from what appears to be a Jap cruiser (right) and black smoke and fire billow from another ship, during one of November 5th or November 11th raids on Rabaul Harbor. Carrier-based planes staged the surprise attacks, sinking and damaging over 20 Jap warships. Credit (Official U.S. Navy Photo From ACME)

WARTIME “GONDOLA” IN VENICE, 12/13/1943. The historic beauty of Venice’s canals, had been marked by the grimness of war and here in this photo from a neutral source, a German gunboat can be seen anchored near the Doge’s Palace in Venice, alongside a gondola (right foreground) waiting for hire. Credit: Acme

MASCOT PARADES, TOO, 12/15/1943. SICILY—Touching their battle-helmets as they march in review before their distinguished visitor, President Roosevelt, these veterans of the Sicilian campaign are led by their unconcerned mascot, who ambles along with…FDR a second glance. In left, fore-…Lt. Gen. Mark W. Clark.

“BARHAM” GOES UP IN SMOKE, 12/13/1943. MEDITERRANEAN—Huge clouds of black smoke mark the watery grave of the 31,100-ton British battleship “Barham,” which blew up when hit by four enemy torpedoes off the Libyan coast on Nov. 25th, 1941. The vessel sank 4 minutes and 45 seconds after the first torpedo entered her side. Only 303 of her complement of 1172 men were saved. Photo, which was just released by the censor, was made from an Australian destroyer. Credit: Acme

Offering Thanks for Deliverance of Naples, 12/27/1943. NAPLES, ITALY – The sanctuary in the Cathedral of Naples, October 17, when a solemn mass of thanksgiving for the deliverance of Naples was offered by Allied Chaplains of the Fifth Army. His Emminence, Alessio Cardinal Ascalesi, Archbishop of Naples, can be seen on the thrown at left in sanctuary. This is undoubtedly the most colorful ceremony that members of the Fifth Army will have occasion to attend in Naples. Credit (Photo by Charles Seawood, Acme Photographer for the War Pool

Tramping Through the Mountains, 12/2/1943. SOMEWHERE IN ITALY -- Moving up on the Italian front, a patrol of British infantrymen march on a mountain road north of Rionero. Photo radioed to New York today (Dec. 2nd) from Allied head quarters in Africa. Credit (British Army Photo via OWI from ACME)

Shine Mister?, 12/2/1943. ITALY -- A pair of American GI boots slog along on "the road to Rome," where a careless step leads to a mud bath. A gooey mess is one way to describe the Fifth Army front near Venafro, and our offensive suffers. Credit (ACME Photo by Bert Brandt, War Pool Correspondent)

Alert Gunmen, 12/2/1943. SOMEWHERE IN ITALY -- Part of the Eighth Army's firing line on the Italian front, these British gunners lie flat on their bellies on a rocky knoll, keeping their eyes peeled for enemy action. Photo radioed to New York today (Dec. 2nd) from Algiers. Credit (British Army Photo Via OWI from Acme)

There's Nothing an MP Can't Do, 12/8/1943. ITALY -- Pfc Hyman Huberman, left, and Pfc Sidney Berchofsky, right, both of Brooklyn, N.Y., members of an MP battalion stationed in Italy, look on as this Italian mother feeds the baby they brought into the world in air-raid shelter in Naples. Credit Line (ACME)

The Roaring Volturno, 12/8/1943. ITALY – High, rushing waters of the Volturno River, swollen by recent heavy rains, churn around pontoons of bridge set up by U.S. Army Engineers. Flood waters had wrecked a least one pontoon bridge. Pvt. Edwin Reidler, Reading, Pa., is giving the high sign to traffic. Note heavy ropes which keep pontoons in place. Credit Line – WP – (ACME)

Bombs Fall on Northern Italy, 12/9/1943. Bombs, (lower center in photo), from Flying Fortresses of the U.S. Army Air Forces, fall toward the railway yards and bridges of Bolzano, Italy, during a recent raid on the city which is only 40 miles south of the famous Brenner Pass into Germany. Hits on transportation facilities impaired movement of troops and supplies from Germany to Italy. Credit: (U.S. Army Air Forces Photo from ACME)

Another Crimp in Nazi Industry, 12/2/1943. This photo, just released in the United States, shows bombs from Flying Fortresses of the U.S. 15th Air Force, exploding on the important ball bearing plant and adjacent railway marshalling yard at Turin, Italy, during a raid last Nov. 8. This raid and the recent one on Schweinfurt, Germany, were aimed at cutting down the Reich's supply of ball bearings, so necessary in any form. (caption is torn). warfare. Credit: (US Army Air Forces Photo from ACME)

Death Plays No Favorites, 12/13/1943. ITALY – Death favors no side in this war. Dead British and German soldiers lay side by side before the jagged entrance to Monastery Hill, where in life they fought each other hand to hand, with ‘no quarter” hostilityCredit (Signal Corps Radiotelephoto from Acme)

Wounded Italians Carried to Rear, 12/14/1943ITALY – Seriously wounded Italian soldier, injured in the first battle in which Italians went into action against their form Nazi allies, is carried to a rear dressing station by his comrades.Credit (Acme Photo by Sherman Montrose for the War Picture Pool, transmitted to the U.S. by Signal Corps Radiotelephoto)

Italian Battlefield, 12/23/1943. Venafro, Italy – Here’s a sample of the rough, rugged terrain over which American doughboys are fighting in Southern Italy as they march toward Rome. A few Yanks squat for a rest on the rocky spot – An outpost on Venafro Ridge – As their buddies climb over the top. Credit Line (Photo By Bert Brandt, ACME Photographer for War Picture Pool). 12/23/43

Don't Lose Your Head, 12/28/1943. ITALY -- If Allied soldiers forget to keep their heads about them mentally as they top this rise on the Sangro River firing line, they are apt to lose them physically. The "Keep off the Skyline" sign is religiously followed advice, and Gunner L.K. King, of London and Lance Bombardier T.R. Sleighholme, of Cumberland, two British 8th Army fighters, duck low to avoid Nazi shells. Credit: (ACME)

FREE FRENCH FIGHT AGAIN, 12/18/1943. SOMEWHERE IN ITALY—Rolling past the shattered wreck that was once a house, free French warriors of the Second Morocco Division speed through a war-torn Italian town on their way to the front lines. The Frenchmen are fighting, again, in Europe, for the first time since the capitulation of France in 1940, equipped with modern American weapons and clothing.

WHERE THE RAIN REIGNS, 12/22/1943. ITALY—In Italy, where the biggest enemy is bad weather, a soggy unit of U.S. cavalry rides past a shell-torn building on the Italian front. Allies have been borrowing Italian horses for reconnaissance missions over narrow, slippery lanes impassable to mechanized vehicles. Credit: Acme photo by Bert Brandt, for the War Pool via Army radiotelephoto

ITALIAN INFANTRYMEN, 12/17/1943. MONT LUNGO, ITALY—Crouching in firing positions behind the rocks that dot Mount Lungo, these Italian infantrymen are battling the Axis, fighting side by side with Americans and Britons of the Fifth Army. Photo radioed to New York today (Dec. 17th) from Algiers. Credit: Acme radiophoto

HAIL THE CONQUERORS. 12/21/1943. SAN PIETRO, ITALY—Advancing Yanks receive first greeting from a native woman standing amid a debris-covered street outside her cellar shelter as they enter San Pietro. Credit: Signal Corps radiotelephoto from Acme

INVADERS WADE ASHORE, 12/18/1943. ARAWE, NEW BRITAIN—Streaming from their landing barge, American troops wade through the shallow waters off the shore of Arawe to complete the Allied invasion of New Britain. Although the invaders were bombed and strafed by the enemy as t hey landed, casualties were extremely light. Credit: Photo by Tom Shafer, Acme photographer for War Picture Pool

YANKS LAND ON NEW BRITAIN, 12/18/1943. ARAWE, NEW BRITAIN—As their LCV skims over Pacific waters toward the shore of Arawe, Yanks anxiously scan the skies, watching the approach of enemy planes. Invading New Britain under heavy bombing and staffing from Japanese planes, our troops escaped with light casualties, losing only two LCV’s in the important operation. Credit: U.S. Signal Corps radio from Acme

JAP PLANES COULDN’T STOP ‘EM, 12/18/1943. ARAWE, NEW BRITAIN—Winging through New Britain skies, a Jap plane pulls out of its bombing and strafing dive on American invasion craft, heading for the shores of New Britain. The enemy tried, in vain, to halt the advance of our troops, who escaped with the loss of only two LCV’s when they landed at Arawe. Credit: U.S. Signal Corps radiotelephoto from Acme

JUNGLE ADVANCE, 12/18/1943. NEW BRITAIN ISLAND—Their eyes glued to their sun sights, trigger fingers ready to go into action at a moment’s notice, these Yanks move stealthily through the thick foliage that covers New Britain Island. Taking all precautions to protect themselves as well as other troops, the American boys advance soon after their landing at Arawe. Credit: U.S. Signal Corps radiotelephoto from Acme

THOROUGH SABOTAGE, 12/20/1943. COPENHAGEN—Here is one of the very few pictures showing sabotage in occupied territory that has been permitted to go through Nazi censorship to Sweden. Workmen are clearing away ruins on a Copenhagen water tower that was blown up by saboteurs on Wednesday at 4 AM. They seem to have done a very thorough job. Photo radioed from Stockholm today. Credit Line (ACME Radiophoto)

NO “TIN HAT” FOR THIS SOLDIER, 12/20/1943. ITALY—Cpl. Chain Singh (CQ), a Sikh Bren Gunner in action on the British 8th Army Front, wears no helmet but only his customary turban. The Sikhs are the only soldiers of India fighting with the Allies, who are permitted to dispense with steel head covering.

Back from Makin, 12/31/1943. Just off Makin Island, U.S. Coast Guardsmen carefully transfer wounded Marines from a landing barge to a Navy plane which will speed them to hospital bases located in safer territory. A first aid station was set aboard a Coast Guard transport which operated as a unit in the Navy Task Force. Credit: U.S. Coast Guard photo from ACME

One of Few, 12/31/1943. Arawe, New Britain – One of the few rubber rafts left afloat after the landing at Arawe, New Britain, is pulled in by members of the crew of an LCT. Most of the rafts used in landing operations were sunk by Japanese machine gun fire. Credit: ACME

Japs Bomb Arawe Invaders, 12/31/1943. Arawe, New Britain – Great geysers of black smoke and spray rise from the water around a group of LCT’s as Japanese bombs rain down upon the invaders at Arawe, New Britain. Photo was made at the height of the Allied invasion on that Jap stronghold. Credit: ACME

Forecasts Victory in 1944, 12/27/1943. Algiers – Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, recently named to command the main Allied invasion of Europe, is shown here in this photo flashed to New York by radio today, as he spoke before members of the Allied press at the Allied Forces Headquarters today. Gen. Eisenhower flatly predicted that “we will win the European war in 1944,” at the press conference. He indicated that he would soon leave Algiers for Britain to take over his new duties. Credit: OWI Radiophoto from ACME

One for the Nips, 12/29/1943. South Pacific – Smoke pours from the blistered stern of an Allied LST (Landing Ship-Tanks), after a Japanese plane scored a hit during an attack on a South Pacific island in the combat zone where the LST was unloading its cargo. A sister ship (right background) stands by as its crew plays a stream of water on the burning vessel. Credit: U.S. Marines Corps photo from ACME

Wounded Aussie Comes Back, 12/29/1943. Satelberg, New Guinea – Slung over the shoulder of one of his buddies, a wounded Australian fighting man is carried back from the front lines. The rescuer passes a tank that continues in the attack on Satelberg. Credit: ACME

As Moroccans Prepared to Battle Germans, 12/28/1943. Italy – It has now been revealed that Mohammedan troops from French Morocco have entered the Allied Fifth Army lines and are actively engaging the Germans in the mountains northwest of Venafro, with excellent results. Before these troops moved into battle, and while they were encamped in the plains to the rear of the Fifth Army lines, the Mohammedan soldiers observed their Ait Kebir, or Great Feast, a solemn religious ceremony which marks the arrival of the new year (it is now the year 1364 on their calendar.) With preparations for ballet under way, uniforms were substituted for the usual colorful costumes, and the usually violent tribal dancing was dispensed with. Instead one of the solders performed a brief token dance. In Morocco it is the custom during the feast that every married man kill a sheep, which is then roasted whole and eaten with a sort of bread cake made of coarsely ground wheat and streamed above a caldron of boiling vegetable stew. In spite of wartime scarcity of the animals in Italy, the soldiers had plenty on hand for the feast, getting them in various mysterious ways about which officials were a bit vague when asked. In this series of photos, taken by Acme photographer Bert Brandt, various parts of the Ait Kebir are shown. (Passed by Censors). After the roast sheep and other food for the feast has been approved by the regiment’s officers, this token dance was performed. Here, (photo above) a soldier dressed in a bright costume of white belted in red, does a dance while the troops beat time on their mess kits with their knives. Another dancer, (not shown) is dressed in a sheep’s skin with a sheep head mask. After the dances, officers place money in the hats or mouth of dancers to show their appreciation, and the feast goes on, with everyone “digging in” to the food. Credit: Acme photo by Bert Brandt for the War Picture Po

As Moroccans Prepared to Battle Germans, 12/28/1943. Italy – It has now been revealed that Mohammedan troops from French Morocco have entered the Allied Fifth Army lines and are actively engaging the Germans in the mountains northwest of Venafro, with excellent results. Before these troops moved into battle, and while they were encamped in the plains to the rear of the Fifth Army lines, the Mohammedan soldiers observed their Ait Kebir, or Great Feast, a solemn religious ceremony which marks the arrival of the new year (it is now the year 1364 on their calendar.) With preparations for ballet under way, uniforms were substituted for the usual colorful costumes, and the usually violent tribal dancing was dispensed with. Instead one of the solders performed a brief token dance. In Morocco it is the custom during the feast that every married man kill a sheep, which is then roasted whole and eaten with a sort of bread cake made of coarsely ground wheat and streamed above a caldron of boiling vegetable stew. In spite of wartime scarcity of the animals in Italy, the soldiers had plenty on hand for the feast, getting them in various mysterious ways about which officials were a bit vague when asked. In this series of photos, taken by Acme photographer Bert Brandt, various parts of the Ait Kebir are shown. (Passed by Censors). Major Jacques Allard, (left), Commandant of the French Regiment, puts his “seal of approval” on the feast by tasting a bit from one of the roasted sheep. Credit: ACME photo by Bert Brandt for the War Picture Po

HE SHOT A NATURAL, 12/27/1943. SOUTH PACIFIC BASE—Capt. James E. Swett (left) of San Mateo, Calif., is congratulated by Maj. Gen. Ralph J. Mitchell, commanding general of Marine Air Units in the South Pacific, after being awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor at his South Pacific base. Capt. Swett received the high honor for shooting down seven Jap planes in one engagement on April 7th this year. This believed to be one of the greatest demonstrations of aerial marksmanship in World War II. Since then, Capt. Swett has added five more Jap planes to his score. Credit Line (US Marine Corp Photo from ACME)

Bombers Protect U.S. Troops Landing on Arawe, 12/28/1943. Covered by B-25s of the U.S. Fifth Air Force, a group of landing craft head for beach at Arawe, New Britain, on southwestern coast. Landing was made and beachheads established in drive to clear the island of Japanese. Credit: ACME photo by Tom Shafer for War Pool

Small in Size but Big in Importance, 12/24/1943. South Pacific – A direct hit by a Jap gun on our beachhead shrouds the bow of an American LST in smoke as we seize Mono Island in the Treasury Group, October 27. Backed by long planning, the quick capture of the Central Solomons Island demonstrated that when Jap forces are small and ill-prepared, we can move with the same terrorizing speed that the Nipponese enemy once did. After a terrific bombardment by U.S. Destroyers, American and New Zealanders killed or captured the majority of the 200 to 300 Japs within 14 hours. Credit: Official U.S. Navy photo from ACME

Jap Aerial Incendiary Bomb, 12/24/1943. Marshall Islands – The incendiary fingers of an aerial phosphorous bomb spray out as the Japs attempt to break up formations of 7th Air Force Liberator Bombers, which are striking daily at Jap bases in the Marshalls. The bomb burst was photographed from the waist window of a Liberator, with the silhouette of the bomber’s .50-calibre waist gun in foreground. Credit: 7th Army Air Force photo from ACME

Yanks Blast Madang, 12/10/1943. New Guinea – Low-flying B-25s run over the target and fairly skim the water of the bay at Madang, New Guinea, where columns of black smoke in the background mark destruction caused by American B-24s on Alexishafen. The black puff of smoke in the center of the photo is from enemy ack-ack. Credit: ACME

New Guinea Counter Man, 12/13/1943. New Guinea – Easily taking to the complexities of modern life, Fuzzy-Wuzzies, natives of New Guinea, handle the jobs of cashier and waiters with ease. Gudu Udau works the cash register while other natives wait for change. The picturesque Fuzzy-Wuzzies also help carry supplies, wounded and ammunition through the jungle. Credit: ACME

Simple When You Know How, 12/10/1943. Pacific – A Fiji islander, who is determined to blow in the New Year for the Yanks, huffs and puffs but gets only a squawk from the bugle, in spite of the expert tutelage of an American bugler. Credit: Yank photo from ACME

Back from Madang, 12/10/1943. South Pacific – After taking part in an American raid on Madang, New Guinea, in the Bomber “Buzzin Buzzard,” the crew lines up at the nose of their plane. (Top row, left to right): Pilot, Lt. George L. Barnaskey, of Tuckahoe, N.Y. Co-pilot, Flight Officer Edward V. Stefanowsky, of Superior, Wisc. Top Gunner Sgt. Harold C. Bridges, of Seattle, Wash. Navigator-Bombardier Lt. Jack D. Moon, of Lubbock, Texas. (Kneeling, left to right) Radio Operator and Tail Gunner Staff Sgt. Wayland R. Anderson, of Pontiac, Mich. Myron H. Davies, Life Correspondent, and Waist Gunner Sgt. William T. Strickland, of Richmond, Calif. Credit: ACME

Mapped Jap Territory, 12/9/1943. South Pacific – These four U.S. Army Engineers, wear the camouflage suits in which they recently landed on a Jap-held island in the South Pacific, made a 200-mile trip through the island’s jungles, and escaped with material for vital maps and charts. Left to right, are: T/4 John Cahill, of Whitefish Bay, Wis. T/Sgt. Harold H. Hulseberg, Chicago, Ill. T/4 Joseph G. Barbre, New Roads, LA. and T/5 Robert D. Miller, of Weldon, Iowa. (Passed by Censors) Credit: ACME

Fighter Plane Breaks in Two, 12/8/1943. Somewhere in the Pacific – Lt. Charles L. Mountenot, of Edgewater, N.J., tried to land his fighter plane on this carrier, with his hydraulic system shot up and with one wheel facing the wrong way. The plane snapped in two when it was caught by the hook. Mountenot had been at Tarawa the day before the Marines landed there. Credit: ACME

Swift Medical Care for Wounded, 12/8/1943. Hawaii: An ATC C-54 Hospital Plane takes aboard the first American casualties from the Makin Island invasion, who have just arrived from the newly-won Central Pacific base. Credit: ACME

An Old Airways Custom, 12/8/1943. Hawaii: Lt. Col. James Roosevelt, left, observer in the Makin Campaign, watches his “Short-Snorter” Bill being signed, after arriving on ATC Hospital Plane at Hickam Field, T.H. Credit: ACME

Blockade Runner Ablaze, 12/30/1943. Bay of Biscay – Attacked and sent to the bottom by aircraft of the British Coastal Command, this fast Nazi Blockade Runner was believed to have been nearing the end of its long journey from Japan when it was spotted. British Airmen also sunk three of a force of eleven enemy Destroyers in the battle. Photo radioed to New York from London today (12-30-43). Credit: ACME Radiophoto

Direct Hit on Nazi Vessel, 12/30/1943. Bay of Biscay – Spotted by American Navy Airmen and sent to the bottom by aircraft of the British Coastal Command, this Nazi Blockade Runner is shown as it suffered a direct hit in the Bay of Biscay. Three of a force of eleven enemy Destroyers accompanied the ship to Davey Jones Locker in the same battle on December 28th. Photo radioed to New York from London today (Dec. 30th). Credit: ACME Radiophoto

Hero Carries On, 12/30/1943. Vella Lavella, S. I. – Pharmacist’s Mate 2/c Rex H. Gregor, 21, of Rochester, Minn. (left), recently performed one of the most heroic acts of the war when he climbed aboard a blazing Landing Barge on which ignited ammunition was exploding, helped remove the wounded and then performed a leg amputation on one of the casualties – although Gregor had never seen such an operation. The action occurred during a Japanese air raid on Marine forces on Vella Lavella, in the Central Solomons. Here, Gregor bandages the wrist of Cpl. Kenneth A. McIntyre, USMC, of Minneapolis, Minn., who also helped rescue wounded from the blazing barge. Note sign over tent, (top right), reading, “Kendall’s Butcher Shop.” Credit: Official Marine Corps photo from ACME

U.S. Bombs Hitting Marshall Islands in Regular Raids, 12/31/1943. Mille Atoll, M. I. – On the regular “milk run” pre-invasion air raids of later, American bombs have been – like here – hitting the air strip and camp area of Mille Atoll in the Marshall Islands. This closeup airview was made during a November raid by Yank fliers. Credit: Official U.S. Navy photo from ACME

Yanks Wreck Cape Gloucester Field, 12/28/1943. This photo, flashed to the United States by radiotelephoto, shows bombs from U.S. B-24 Liberator and B-25 Mitchell Bombers, exploding on the Jap airfield at Cape Gloucester. The field is shown pitted with shell craters from almost daily bombing by Allied planes since Dec. 1st. In upper right, bombs burst on Nip planes which were trapped on the ground. These raids were in preparation for landings by American Marines who, it was announced today, had made their second landing in the Cape Gloucester area. Credit: U.S. Signal Corps Radiotelephoto from ACME

Yanks Hit Japs at Home – (#1), 12/16/1943. Washington, D.C. – This photo, just released in Washington, shows the Japanese Shinchiku Airdrome on the island of Formosa, before it was blasted by fighters and bombers of the U.S. Army 14th Air Force, during a raid on Thanksgiving Day, 1943. This marks the first time Japanese island bases have been struck from China proper, where the Allies now have bases. (Also see Acme photo #W707378). Credit: U.S. Army Air Forces photo from ACME

Yanks Hit Japs at Home – (#2), 12/16/1943. Washington, D.C. – This photo, just released in Washington, shows Jap aircraft burning on the Shinchiku Aerodrome on Formosa, during an attack last Thanksgiving Day (1943), by fighters and bombers of the U.S. 14th Army Air Force, which took off from bases in China proper. This photo was taken just after fighter planes swept the target in a low-level strafing attack, which set fire to the Nip aircraft. A short time later, American bombers blasted the airfield and installations with heavy bombs.

During Battle at Tarawa, 12/16/1943. During Battle at Tarawa

Checking in After Rabaul Raid, 12/16/1943. South Pacific – The flight deck of the Aircraft Carrier USS Saratoga, represents a neat problem in handling traffic, as planes come in after the raid on the Jap base at Rabaul, New Britain, last Nov. 5. The raid was credited with severely crippling the Nip stronghold, and it was reported abandoned after a subsequent raid. Here, a Douglas Dauntless (SBD) Dive Bomber, (foreground), is checked in while, beyond, another taxies up after landing, its prop still spinning. In the background, a third SBD comes in for a landing. Credit: U.S. Navy Official photo from ACME

Reunion on Makin, 12/17/1943. Makin, Gilbert Islands – After nine years of separation, Lt. Bruno Raymond, Royal Australian Naval Volunteer Reserve, meets his father, Moritz (left), and his half-native mother, Maria, after going ashore on newly-captured Makin Island. Lt. Raymond, who is attached to the U.S. Navy as a pilot, was born in the Gilbert Islands. His parents lived on Makin all during the Jap period of occupation. Credit: ACME

After the Battle at Tarawa, 12/16/1943. CME Betio Island, part of the Tarawa group, shows considerable evidence of the terrific fire concentrated on it during the battle for Tarawa, by Allied Sea and Air Forces. Shell craters pock the tiny strip of land and the shallow water near it, and palm trees have been stripped of their foliage by the fury of the battle. Planes along the air strip are American planes Credit

Only Hate For Hirohito, 12/10/1943. JAPAN—These few U.S. Army Japanese are all that remain of a platoon that accomplished its mission of securing an Italian road junction ably defended by enemy machine guns. After successfully flanking their objective, they were attacked by an enemy tank and the platoon leader was the first man killed. Continuing the attack under their sergeant, the fighters knocked out the tank with a bazooka and shot the escaping crew. Then, under heavy fire, they attacked the machine gun positions, killing the German gunners and securing the position with a heavy loss of their own. Credit: ACME

Only Hate For Hirohito, 12/4/1943. JAPAN—A package of rice sent all the way from Honolulu draws amazed cheers from the U.S. Army Japs in their bivouac as mail arrives. Credit: ACME

Air, Sea Assault Spearheads Yank Invasion of Makin, 12/3/1943. CME MAKIN, G.I.—In one of the first Makin Island action pictures to reach the United States, American planes come in low over their own invasion craft to strafe Japanese machine gun nests on the enemy-held Gilbert base. This photo was made as the first wave of our assault troops moved in on the Japs on November 21. Credit

One Less Ship to Go, 12/6/1943. WASHINGTON, D.C.—A direct hit amidship rock a Jap heavy cruiser, as U.S. Navy dive-bombers and torpedo planes smash the enemy base at Rabaul Harbor. In two raids on the big Japanese island base, November 5th and November 11th, our Navy planes sank or damaged over 20 warships. Credit: Official U.S. Navy photo from ACME

A Yank Leaves Makin, 12/5/1943. MAKIN—Flying enemy shrapnel found the eyes of this U.S. Army private, who wears bandages as he leaves Makin Island. Two medical corpsmen assist the Yank, who helped our forces gain possession of the central Pacific atoll, to board a transport. Credit: ACME

Army Bombers Raid Nauru, 12/5/1943. NAURU—As Yank forces battled for possession of Gilbert Island bases, our airmen winged over Jap-held Nauru Island, carrying out our new offensive in the central Pacific. Here, an American Liberator flies above Nauru in the raid of November 21st. Credit: USAAF photo—ACME

Gotcha!, 12/7/1943. The direct hit of a 1000-pound bomb blasts this 8000-ton Jap transport to smithereens. Lt. Don Scurlock of Butler, Alabama, one of the U.S. Fifth Air Force’s crack bombardiers, is credited with this bombing, off the coast of Kavieng, New Britain Island, on November 21st. This is an original of the radiophoto sent recently from the southwest Pacific. Credit: U.S. Army Air Forces photo from ACME

Entertainment Courtesy A. Hitler, 12/19/1943. MIGNANO, ITALY -- A German radio, found on a battlefield, provides entertainment for these American soldiers as they "bivouac" in an old wine cellar (minus the wine) in Mignano, after their battle for the Italian town. At the switchboard is Pfc. Howard L. Saddler of Canton, Ohio. Pvt. Theodore Zembuiski of Albany, NY, lounges in background, while (left to right) Pvt. Thomas G. Cross of Buffalo Gap, Texas, and Pfc. Norman S. Roy of Baltimore, MD., lie in foreground. Credit: (ACME)

Famine In India, 12/17/1943. By last week, an estimated 1,000,000 persons had died of starvation in India and, although the British Government reportedly has the situation under control, that number will undoubtedly be raised before the final, tragic count is taken. Just released, these startling pictures were taken in Calcutta at the peak of India’s famine in late October when a homeless army of 100,000 roamed the city, dying in the streets.Sacred cows and dusky-skinned human beings rummage in the same Calcutta garbage pile for scraps of food. Even when death from starvation seems a certainty, no Indian would ever think of touching the Holy Meat.Credit: ACME

Famine in India, 12/17/1943. By last week, an estimated 1,000,000 persons had died of starvation in India and, although the British Government reportedly has the situation under control, that number will undoubtedly be raised before the final, tragic count is taken. Just released, these startling pictures were taken in Calcutta at the peak of India’s famine in late October when a homeless army of 100,000 roamed the city, dying in the streets.A triple line of starving Indians drags toward a “soup kitchen” in Calcutta. Often, natives fell dead before reaching the food.Credit: ACME

Famine in India, 12/17/1943. By last week, an estimated 1,000,000 persons had died of starvation in India and, although the British government reportedly has the situation under control, that number will undoubtedly be raised before the final, tragic count is taken. Just released, these startling pictures were taken in Calcutta at the peak of India’s famine in late October when a homeless army of 100,000 roamed the city, dying in the streets. New York BureauA young Indian mother covers the body of her baby who has just drawn a last weak breath. Now the homeless woman must wait for the corpse removal squad that picks up the bodies of children who starved to death. Credit Line (ACME)

Bombs Fall on the Invaders, 12/18/1943. Arawe, New Britain - Clouds of thick, black smoke rise from the water as Japanese planes bomb and strafe American landing craft during the yank invasion of New Britain, at Arawe. Miraculously, no ships were hit during the bombing. Only two LCV’s were lost in the entire operation. Credit (U.S. Signal Corps Telephoto - ACME)

Southerners in Fray, 12/1/1943. Tarawa, G.I. - - Both Southerners, both Marines, Lt. Cecil Brown (L), 27, of Tallassee, Alabama, and Lt. Roy H. Elrod, 24, of Muleshier (??- - - postal guide lists no such town, but does list Muleshoe), Texas, rest on a pier after successful assault against Japanese of Tarawa. Even while resting Lt. Brown keeps his rifle at the ready.Credit (ACME)

Jap Transport Hit by “Flying Bertha”, 12/2/1943. A Japanese freighter-transport burns fiercely after being raked with 75 mm, shellfire from a U.S. “Flying Bertha” – B-25 Mitchell bomber mounting a 75 mm. Gun – near the powerful Jap base at Wewak in the Southwest Pacific. The Fifth U.S. Air Force has just announced that it has been using Mitchells mounting the heavy cannon for some time.Credit Line (U.S. Signal Corps radio telephoto from ACME)

Enemy Inning, 12/28/1943. Guadalcanal, S.I. - - Jap bombers provided this sobering welcome for a U.S. Navy warship sailing into port at Guadalcanal. Flames still burn brightly from hits registered by the enemy who left a short while before the ship entered the port. Gun crews aboard ship stand by at their posts, ready to greet the - - - Japanese, when and if they return.Credit (U.S. Navy photo from ACME)

Shelter for Wounded, 12/28/1943. Arawe, N.B. – An American soldier, wounded in the invasion of New Britain, is lowered on a stretcher into a Japanese dougout for protection against the possible return of Nipponese planes. Credit (ACME)

FUN FOR THEIR MONEY, 12/10/1943. NEW GUINEA—Gambling is most definitely “legal” on New Guinea, and Club Six Four, elegant officers’ club belonging to members of an advanced 5th. Air Force bombing unit even has its own gambling room. Soldiers crowd close around the dice table. Ready to win—or lose—some of their Army pay. Credit: ACME PHOTO BY THOMAS L. SHAFER, WAR POOL CORRESPONDENT.

BIG GUN SHARP-SHOOTERS, 12/23/1943. NEW GUINEA—Australian fighters get eye-witness proof of their artillery and bombing accuracy, as they inspect Satelberg, village on New Guinea recently wrested from the Japs. Before seizing the enemy base, the Aussies subjected it to a terrific pounding from air and land.Credit: ACME.

Celebrate Mass of Thanksgiving, 12/27/1943. NAPLES, ITALY -- Every inch of room in the Cathedral of Naples is occupied by a thankful populace and soldiers of liberation during a solemn mass of thanksgiving for the deliverance of Naples, celebrated October 17, by Allied chaplains of the Fifth Army. In attendance, too, was Alessio Cardinal Ascalesi, Archbishop of Naples. Credit (Photo by Charles Seawood, ACME Photographer for the War Picture Pool)

But It’s Still Home, 12/30/1943. Russia – They may find their homes reduced to a mound of bomb rubble, but these Russians walk with eager steps toward their town which was liberated by the Red Army on the Bryansk Front. The sound of the approaching Russian Army is a signal for Soviet civilians to crawl out of their huts and caves and return to their home towns which usually have been systematically destroyed by the Germans.Credit: ACME

Nazis on the Run, 12/30/1943. Somewhere in the U.S.S.R. – Retreating, on the double, through a Russian town in the Kiev sector, these Nazi soldiers watch the village burn as they walk past. The entire town was systematically destroyed by the beaten Germans. Photo was radioed to London from a neutral source.Credit: ACME

#3 – Pillar of Smoke Marks Grave of Jap Plane, 12/13/1943. All that was left of one of 72 enemy planes shot down in the December 4 U.S. aircraft carrier task force raid on the Marshall Islands was this tall column of smoke and a little debris where the Jap torpedo bomber hit the water after being blasted by an aircraft carrier’s anti-aircraft guns. At left is a U.S. destroyer which was escorting the carrier. Credit: Official U.S. Navy photo from ACME

#2 – Splash and Roar as Jap Plane Hits Water, 12/13/1943. What was one of 72 enemy planes shot down in the December 4 U.S. aircraft carrier task force raid on the Marshall Islands, a Jap torpedo, explodes with a mighty roar of flame and smoke and water as hit hits the sea after being bagged by anti-aircraft fire. The bomber was one of six which tried to hit an American carrier. All were knocked down. Credit: Official U.S. Navy photo from ACME

A Dream Come True, 12/20/1943. New Guinea – Officers of an advanced bombing unit of the 5th Air Force labored hard in their spare time, and out of salvaged materials constructed the most elegant club on New Guinea which boasts this long bar. They surpassed their goal of creating a club worthy of the good old U.S. Credit (ACME photo by Thomas L. Shafer, War Pool correspondent)

Out to Get What’s Left, 12/18/1943. Makin Island – Out to get what’s left of the Jap force pushed back to one end of Makin Atoll, a column of American fighters tramps around a lagoon in which a Japanese seaplane is partially submerged after strafing by Yank planes. In the right foreground are stacks of Jap fuel barrels. Credit (U.S. Coast Guard photo from ACME)

Famine in India, 12/17/1943. By last week, an estimated 1,000,000 persons had died of starvation in India and, although the British government reportedly has the situation under control that number will undoubtedly be raised before the final, tragic count is taken. Just released, these startling pictures were taken in Calcutta at the peak of India’s famine in late October when a homeless army of 100,000 roamed the city, dying in the streets. New York Bureau Regular corpse removal squads were on call in the streets of Calcutta. This wagon bears the letters A.R.P., but death in India came not from the skies but from within. Often, the shriveled dead had to wait for hours to be removed from the street, checked in at the police station, then taken to the ghats for burning. Credit line (ACME)

Famine in India, 12/17/1943. By last week, an estimated 1,000,000 persons had died of starvation in India and, although the British government reportedly has the situation under control that number will undoubtedly be raised before the final, tragic count is taken. Just released, these startling pictures were taken in Calcutta at the peak of India’s famine in late October when a homeless army of 100,000 roamed the city, dying in the streets. New York Bureau It doesn’t take long for word to get around that grain is spilling from these sacks on a wagon parked in Calcutta. Children, who dare not rip open the bags, grub in the dirt for kernels that sift down. Credit line (ACME)

12/17/1943. By last week, an estimated 1,000,000 persons had died of starvation in India and, although the British government reportedly has the situation under control that number will undoubtedly be raised before the final, tragic count is taken. Just released, these startling pictures were taken in Calcutta at the peak of India’s famine in late October when a homeless army of 100,000 roamed the city, dying in the streets. New York Bureau Squalid eating conditions mean nothing to India’s starving who stuff the free cereal in their mouths with their hands. The food won’t be enough to bring their deformed bodies back to normalcy. Credit line (ACME)

Lebanese Protest March, 12/1/1943. Beirut, Lebanon: French authorities of the French committee of National Liberation arrested the President, Premier, some Ministers and members of the Lebanese Chamber of Deputies, on Nov. 11th, who had voted immediate independence of French mandate. Shown here, are deputation of Lebanese on the way to the British and American legations to protest against the infringement of their freedom. The French released the arrested officials on Nov. 21st, after several violent outbreaks between French troops and Lebanese, both Christian and Moslem.Credit line (ACME)

Ready For Trouble, 12/4/1943. Beirut, Lebanon: French troops of the French committee of National liberation easily handle, as shown here, demonstrators who had assembled in protest against the arrest of the President, Premier, some Ministers and some members of the Chamber. Officials were arrested due to their vote of immediate freedom from French mandate. Since day of arrest, November 11th, French released them to resolve the crisis.Credit line (ACME)

Meager Victory, 12/20/1943. Russia—After a year of almost steady retreat before the powerful Red Army, German troops managed to retake a few towns on the central Russian front. Here, according to German caption accompanying photo, are Nazi troops as they reentered Zhitomir. Truck in foreground is supposedly a mobile Red Army office. Radioed from Stockholm this morning. Credit: ACME radiophoto.

Streetcar Riders Killed by Shells, 12/15/1943. Leningrad—Bodies of citizens of Leningrad, killed when German and Finnnish guns bombarded the city recently, are piled on the street as rescue workers go through the wrecked trolley cars looking for other victims. This photo was flashed to New York by radio today. (Passed by censors). Credit: ACME radiophoto.

Helmets For Protection, 12/31/1943. Major Edward F. Sustrick (left) of Denver, Colo., and Sgt. William Lyon of Los Angeles, Calif., wear the M3 and M4, helmets designed to protect airmen from low-velocity fragments of anti-aircraft shells. The M3 (left) is of a one-piece type, with hinged flaps, that can be worn by most airmen. The M4 was developed for gunners, who have only limited space in their turrets.

Back On American Soil, 12/17/1943. New York City – Commander Wallace L. Rinehart of St. Louis, MO., Commander of the 54th U.S. Navy Construction Battalion leads a gang of jubilant Seabees down the Gangplank of a Navy transport to set foot on American soil for the first time in ten months. With an excellent record of service in the Mediterranean behind them, the Seabees returned to the States today (Dec. 17th). The boys went directly to Camp Endicott, R.I., where every CB man will be granted Christmas leave.

Ten-Month-Growth, 12/17/1943. New York City – Returning to the States for the first time in ten months, Carpenter’s Mate Milbert F. Baker brought a thick beard back with him. Carpenter’s Mate 3/C Edgar A. Dollar of Vancouver, Wash., Combs the face foliage of his Salem, Ore., buddy, as the two arrive in New York with the 54th Naval Construction Battalion. 12/17/43 Credit Line (ACME)

Raiders’ Return, 12/16/1943. At Sea – Returning to the flight deck of the USS Saratoga after the terrific, November 5th raid on Rabaul, wounded rear gunner AOM Kenneth Bratton, of Mississippi, winces as he is lifted from the turret of the Avenger in which he fought. Applying a tourniquet to his shattered knee, Bratton managed to retain consciousness until he was carried from his post by Lt. Julie Bescoes, USNR, formerly a University of California coach and All-American grid star. 12/16/43 Credit Line (Official U.S. Navy Photo From ACME)

Yank “Calling Cards” For Bremen, 12/15/1943. Washington, D.C. – A stick of ten heavy bombs drops from a Flying Fortress of the U.S. Army Air Forces, in the center of this photo, just released in Washington. Exploding anti-aircraft shells, (bottom, center), and vapor trails, (top) can be seen in the photo which was taken during the heavy all-American 1,000 plane raid on Bremen, Germany, last Nov. 26, during the week when Allied Bombers were blasting Berlin to bits. Credit: U.S. Army Air Forces photo from ACME

Largest Glider Tested, 12/2/1943.Minneapolis, Minn.—Largest glider ship ever built for Army Air Forces ready for its first test flight at Wold-Chamberlain Field, Minneapolis, Minn. Lt. Col. Bruce B. Price of Wright Field was at the controls of the giant craft with Capt. Ben West as co-pilot. The new ship, under construction since Sept. 24 at the Midway Plant of the Northwestern Aeronautical Corporation, has a load capacity greater than a two-motor Douglas Plane of the type used by commercial lines, factory representative said. Credit: ACME.

Soldier Works on Furlough, 12/23/1943. Muskegon, Michigan -- Home from the Aleutians on furlough, his first in 18 months, Pfc. William Beckley of Muskegon Heights, Michigan, is spending it working 16 hours a day at his old job of operating a lift truck in a foundry. To him, all-out war effort means just that. Credit: ACME

AWARDED CONGRESSIONAL MEDAL OF HONOR, 12/2/1943. 1st. Lieut. David C. Waybur, Piedmont, Calif., wearing the Congressional Medal of Honor awarded him for heroism under enemy fire. After three of his men were hit and himself seriously injured by enemy fire, Lt. Waybur, commanding a reconnaissance platoon, engaged four enemy tanks, personally accounting for one of them, and dispersing the remainder. The youthful appearing officer beat the tank by wiping out the vehicle’s crew with his .45 caliber Thompson machine gun. Credit (Signal Corps Radio-Telephoto from ACME)

Blimp Rescues Downed Flier - (#1), 12/23/1943. Somewhere on the Atlantic - Aviation Mate 3/c Charles J. Schultz, clings to the pontoon of his overturned Curtiss Observation Plane, after being forced down “somewhere on the Atlantic”. This photo, just released in the United States, was taken from the U.S. Navy Blimp K-89, which dropped a life raft to the flier. The pilot of the plane, Ensign Arthur Masley, USNR, Batavia, Ill., was trapped in the overturned craft and killed. (See photo 708044). Credit: U.S. Navy photo from ACME

No Title. 12/29/1943. First Lieut. Thomas D. Hindmen, May, Tex., receives the Silver Star decoration for gallantry in action from Maj. Gen. Charles H. Corlett. His mother lives in May, Texas, where the lieutenant was born. His wife, Mary, lives at Carmel, Calif.

The End of Romance, 12/29/1943. Algiers -- Lt. Russell Brickell, of Fort Worth, Texas, signs his name to the ever-expanding roster of the Algiers chapter of the “Brush-Off Club” as charter member Capt. Howard Hammersley Jr. literally brushes his buddy off. Membership is open only to those overseas fighters who lady loves have ditched them. Capt. Hammersley hails from Roanoke, Virginia. Credit: ACME photo by Charles Seawood for War Pool

Warm Clothes for Cold Trip, 12/29/1943. Somewhere in Alaska -- Ready to tour Alaskan and Aleutian bases to put on exhibition games for our boys up there, these major league diamond stars get outfitted with heavy, warm clothing for their cold trip. Kneeling, Lt. Arthur Tober (left) of Bridgeport, Connecticut, adjusts a parka on Fred “Dixie” Walker, while Sgt. John A. Theoboldt of Monterey, California, fits a pair of shoepacks to Hank Borowy. Left to right, the baseball players are Stan Musial of the St. Louis Cards Dixie Walker of the Brooklyn Dodgers Frankie Frisch, manager of the Pittsburgh Pirates Danny Ditwhiler of the Cards and Hank Borowy of the New York Yankees. Credit: ACME

GOOD WORK PAL, 12/16/1943. ENGLAND—Two jubilant fighter pilots greet the new top-scoring ace of the U.S. 8th Air Force fighter command, Capt. Walker M. Mahurin, 24, of 927 West Wildwood, Fort Wayne, Ind., as he returned to his base in England from an escort mission over Bremen. On the flight he shot down three ME-110s to bring his total score to eleven. On the following Bremen mission, he increased his tally to twelve. Credit: U.S. Army Air Forces photo

Heil! Heil! The Gang’s All Here!, 12/4/1943. Paris –The Germans probably meant this photo, received through neutral sources, as a neat little piece of propaganda, showing the leader of the French Popular Party taking a triumphal ride through the streets of Paris. However, the camera tells the truth as the French citizens greet the “leader” with the upraised hand salute of racism. Credit: ACME

Last Rites in Italy, 12/19/1943. Italy—Capt. Christ A. Lehne, Lutheran minister from Fredericksburg, Texas, stands with bared head as two Fifth Army Fighters remove the stars and stripes from the body of a dead comrade. In the background, temporary markers and white crosses mark the resting places of other Americans who gave their lives in Italy. 12/19/43 (Acme)

White Crosses Mark Our Graves In Italy, 12/11/1943. Italy –Row upon row of neat white crosses mark the graves of U.S. fighting men who are buried in Italy. Here, two American soldiers replace the temporary markers with the crosses and identification tags. 12/11/43 Credit (U.S. Signal Corps Raidiotelephoto From ACME)

It’s Christmas for Yanks in Britain, 12/13/1943. England – The arrival in England of Christmas packages for Americans soldiers brings cheer and anticipation to this group of Yanks. Sgt. Kenneth L. Thiem (center, facing camera), of Los Angeles, California, whistles with delight as he receives his package, while Pvt. Leslie Rachline (kneeling, right) of North Bergen, New Jersey, eagerly searches for his gift. At top right (left to right) are Pvt. Mitchell Kucharsky, Brooklyn, New York, and Pvt. Walter W. Newman, Fort Wayne, Indiana. Credit: U.S. Signal Corps Photo from ACME

Decoration by The "Chief", 12/13/1943. Castelvetrano, Sicily—President Franklin D. Roosevelt leans out of his jeep to pin the Distinguished Service Cross on the field jacket of Lt. Gen. Mark Clark (Right), USA, commanding General of the Allied Fifth Army, in ceremonies at Castelvetrano, during the Chief Executive’s stop-off in Sicily on his way home from the historic Cairo and Teheran Conferences 12/13/43 (ACME)

Lord Gort Accepts Scroll from President, 12/14/1943. MALTA – Field Marshal Lord Gort, (at microphone in group at right), as he made a speech of acceptance for a scroll presented to the people of Malta on behalf of the people of the U.S., and expressing American admiration for the courage and fortitude of the Maltese. Just before this photo was taken, the scroll was presented to Lord Gort by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, (seated in Jeep, at left). Standing near the rear wheel of the Jeep, (left foreground), is Major John Boettiger, the President’s son-in-law, who actually handed the scroll to Lord Gort, during the recent ceremony. Credit: (OWI Photo from ACME)

Headed for All-American Raid on Bremen, 12/15/1943. Washington, D.C.—This photo, just released in Washington, shows liberator and flying fortresses of the U.S. Army Air Forces, filling the sky as they head for the heavy All-American raid on Bremen, Germany, last Nov. 26. More than 1,000 planes took part in the raid and more than 60 can be counted in this photo. Credit: U.S. Army Air Forces photo from ACME

Brazilian Army Men in North Africa, 12/14/1943. North Africa—Members of the Brazilian-U.S. Joint Defense Commission listen to Maj. Dudley Williams give a resume of the Allied invasion of Algeria at St. Eugene, Algiers, one of the landing points. Prominent in the group are: Gen. Mascarenhas and Gen. Anor of the Brazilian Army and Maj. Gen. J.G. Ord, U.S. Army member of the Commission. Officer at extreme left acts as interpreter. Credit: Signal Corps radiotelephoto from ACME.

Main Street, 12/14/1943. New York City—A Russian peasant woman does no visiting or “shopping” on the main street of Zhizdra, a town liberated from the Germans. Retreating Nazis used a hit and run policy, burning and razing a town before they retreat. Credit: ACME.

1 December 1943 - History

Signal Aircraft Warning Training Regiment
Organized: 30 December 1943, Drew Field, Tampa Florida
Note: Personnel largely came from 1st Signal Aircraft Warning Training Battalion

Signal Aircraft Warning Training Battalion
Located: 1943, Drew Field, Tamp Florida
Notes: 8 August 1943, the personnel of the 2nd Signal AW Battalion were transferred to, and became the 588th SAW Training Battalion

Headquarters Company
Companies A - H
Administration Department
Preliminary Operational Training Information Center Department
Preliminary Operational Training Telephone & Telegraph Department
Preliminary Operational Training Radar Department
Preliminary Operational Training Radio Department

Radar Calibration Detachment
Activated: 20 August 1943, Mitchel Field, New York

Signal Radar Maintenance Team or Unit
Fort Ord, California 1950
Campaigns & Foreign Service Awards:
Central Europe 22 March &ndash 11 May 1945
North Appennines 10 September 1944 &ndash 4 April 1945
Northern France, 25 July &ndash 14 September 1944
Rhineland 15 September 1944 &ndash 21 March 1945

Signal Aircraft Warning Training Regiment

Signal Aircraft Warning Training Regiment
Note: Unit was formerly the 4th Signal Air Warning Training Battalion. Unit was absorbed by the 5th Training Regiment.
Disbanded: 10 July 1944

Ground Observer Platoon
Activated: September 1944, Biak, Netherlands East Indies
Note: Account of observers being slipped into Mindoro Island, Philippines by LST and PT-Boat. Established, helped Filipino Guerrillas. Men were coming ashore with their equipment when discovered immediately by the Japanese. They had to destroy their radar and radios and run for their lives.

Signal Aircraft Warning Training Regiment
Formed: 10 July 1944, absorbed the 4th Signal Air Warning Training Regiment

Signal Aircraft Warning Training Battalion
Note: 1943, Aircraft Warning School, Drew Field, Tampa, Florida

Radar Calibration Detachment
Activated: 20 August 1943, Mitchel Field, New York

Signal Radar Maintenance Unit
Fort Custer, Michigan
Subordinate to: 22nd Anti-Aircraft Artillery Group
Campaigns & Foreign Service Awards:
Occupation Credit: 15 September - 5 January 1946 Japan

Signal Radar Maintenance Unit
Campaigns & Foreign Service Awards:
Central Europe 22 March &ndash 11 May 1945
Northern France 25 July &ndash 14 September 1944
Rhineland 15 September 1944 &ndash 21 March 1945
Occupation Credit: 20 May &ndash 15 August 1945 Germany

Radar Calibration Detachment
Activated: 25 January 1946, Bad Kissingen, Germany

Observation Battalion
Italy WWII
Equipment: SCR-584

Signal Aircraft Warning Detachment
Located: Drew Field, Tampa, Florida
Relocated: January 1945, Departed for port of embarkation

Losses Jagdgeschwader 26 - 1 December 1943

Post by Regulus 1 » 11 Apr 2009, 00:53

Can anyone help us out on this matter, I'm trying to find out more about a B17 claim of the 384th Bombardment Group on the 1st December 1943 over Belgium. Where there any losses in between 1200 and 1330 hours for Jagdgeschwader 26 on that day ?

Thanks and best from Johan

Re: Losses Jagdgeschwader 26 - 1 December 1943

Post by Pips » 11 Apr 2009, 10:27

Casualties for JG26 on 1 December 1943 are as follows:

Obfw. Heitman. WIA. S of Geilenkirchen. Shot down by P-47
Hptm Hoppe. KIA. Epinoy A/field. Shot down by 411 Sq. Spitfire
Fw. Weyrich KIA. 2k S of Moeuvres. Shot down by 411 Sq. Spitfire
Lt. Wunschelmeyer. WIA. Elsdorf, W of Koln. B-17
Fw. Wurtz. WIA. Warsage, near Vise. Not specified
Uffz. Seidel. WIFA. Rengen, SE Eifel Crashed lack of fuel

Information taken from "The JG 26 War Diary Volume 2", by Donald Caldwell.

File #626: "Operations Directive No. 40 December 1, 1943.pdf"

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i.foreach-such"airplane.."assigned toi'their respective units. L i A unit. commander:" . ". '. :-.

responsibility until the airplane has-been .- : . ":
thereof has been made', b

Headquart.ers. ' After deli.yer

' ?
. : fl o w n o u t s i d e O f

e - S t a t e . o r. . - p o r. t

o n . t h e r o f i n w h i c

:. ,/
. be :Riverted for the- use of

e r. s h a l l , i s s u e " , o r d e r s a s s :
t h e ' u n i t s ( G r o u p : S q u a d r o n 0 r " , D e t a c h e d F l i g h t ) - ' 6 f " t h e W i n g f o r s b£fied ,': i . -

On" or before the :expirationof each such period, the Wing Commander '. ,-.

e orders for" reassignment-to other

t r a n s f e r t o s u c h u n i t s s h a l l b e ' m a d e a t t h e t i m e : . s p e c i fi e d

, . w e a t h e r . - o r , o t h e r , u n a v o i d a b l e c"- u "s. e . . . . . . -'--:-

i i i i n . ' c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h v : t h ' e C o m m a n d i n g O f fi c e r. o f t h e . u n i t t a k i n g , p o s s e s s i o n - . . . . . ' i

. dr' hiS.. authorized representative,, make a --thorough li

to :determine whether" there has been. compliance . " .i ' " '-':

recorded, on CAP. Form No. 653, ."Report .of Da

craft."!#'which'-f6rm shall be executedin triplicate and signed by both

' - . " , ' - p a r t i e s , m a k i n g t h e i n s

c t i o n , . T r a n s f e r o f s a i d a i r c r a f t s h a l l b e e v" i d e n c e d
:" . .

ecuted in triplicate on the back o'f said inspectio

f o r m , T h e ' u n i t r e l i n q u i s h i n g

s s e s s i o n . s h a l l f o r w a r d o n e c o p y. o f t h i s ,

form to. Wing Headquarters .and retain one copy in its files the other copy
shall be entered in the files of the Unit taking possession.
5. Care and Protection'

. O f fi c e r. o f a n y. C A P.

m i t t o W h i c h a n y o f ' s

e airplanes-are .assigned shall be responsible for the

re and
protection thereof. Said airplanes shall be maintained in an airworthy
condition, all equipment and accessories shall be maintained in first-class

: , ' O o e r a t l o n s D l r e c t l v e N O ' .

w o r k i n g o r d e r, a n d a x r p l a n e s s h a l l b e k e p t c l e a n x n s x d e a n d o u t a t a l l t i m e s . - .

Wherever 'possxble, said .airplanes shall be housed xn hangars. When.it is
. i::

necessary %o park airplanes in. th

open, special care shall be exercised to
s e e t h & t t h e y . a .r e ' s e. c .u r' -e .l y

i n . c a s e o f e m e r g e n c y, s a i d A A F a i r p l a n e s s h a h b e l a n d e d o n l y " : : . . . ., : ,

none, of-these amrplanes shall oe-lan

Air. Base "or Station without' the written permxssmo

rmssion is: granted, -the utmost: :" "

,'::exeraised:"to::observe all local rules

at"the field, and :t0 Cooperate with: perso

. , , , : - a t . . . t h e , f C e l d m n e v e r y w a y , p o s s m b l e . . . . . . :,

craft ms !to be used. Samd orders shall state .the purpose of tho
" :

w h e r e : p r o s p e c t i v e c a d e t s a r e b e i n g . ' c a r r i e d l o c a l l y, i n i w h i c h C a s e t h e : : . .

a i s o n type airplanes allocated to Civil Air Patrb

of the United States on active duty assi

nment. "-." All CAP pilots assigned to.
fl y S a i d a i r c r a f t s h a l i b e r e q u i r e d t o h o l d - c u r r e n t l y, e f f e c t i v e ' C i v i l A e r o - .
n a u t i c s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . c e r t i fi c a t e s o f t h e ' g r a d e . o f p r i v a t e p i l o t o r h i g h e r. . . .

addition to th'e":f0regoing' r6quirements

i .
flysaidaircraft shall.be required %o have officially logged a minimum' of
1 5 0 h o u r s a s / p i l o t , i n c l u d i n g n o t l e s s t h a n 5 0 h o u r s ' o n c r o s s - c o u n t r y. fl y i n g , , :
at least iOhours of which shall have been flown in the

her CAP personnel shall wear t h e o f fi o i a l : " C A P '
uniform atall times when operating or carried in said Army aircraft,
i0. Fli

No pilot shall be assigned to any particular mission which, in the
o p i n i o n o f t h e U n i t C o m n

n d e r, h e i s n o t q u a l i fi e d t o p e r f o r m n o r s h a l l
a n y a i r p l a n e . b e a s s i g n e d t o - a n y, s u c h m i s s i o n i f , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e

r, . s a i d a i r p l a n e i s . n o t a i r w o r t h y. , : p r o p e r l y e q

for the ,successful performance of the mission..
: . . .
: .. .

. persons'other than personnel Of C

, , . . A v i a t i o n " O a d e t a z

L i t m e n t p r o g r a m s h a

t, :: excep$ : that"prospective -

.!i 3adet i.iand'Air'.wAC 'recruits."may: be, carried onl Orientation. fli

t h i n a r a d i u s : o f

i v e m i l e s f r o m t h e ' a i r p o r t - 0 r. . h a s e , ' : ' :

:-. ,
Will be provided with !two paracnu

shall, wear said parachutes at. all.litimes while engage
o p e r a t i o n s , ' e ' x c e p t i n i n s t a n c e s w h e r. e . t h e O o ,

n d i n g O f fi c e r h a v i n g

. "
i. 7.'
u r. i s d i c t i o n m a y d e . t e m i n e t h a t 2 . t h

! o f . S u c h s h o r t ' d u r a t i o n " . t h a t ' :
aircraft will. not. attain "sufficient altitude: to make the use

. ., ' p a r a c .h u t e s : s h a l l . b e

r,e" t" a i n e d .x" n p r o p e r

a i n e d 2 i n a c c o r d a n c e . W i t h t h e . o A A r e g u l

t i 0 n s p e r t a i n i n g t h e r e t o
-.. ._

" a. i'In additidn, to the requirem'ents.. of paragraph 9 a and b above, ..all .
pilots .operating said aircraft shall hold currently effective restricte

radio telephone operator permits, issuod by the Federal Communications"

.. These aircraft' are equipped with transmitters operating on the .Army
frequency of

95 kc. No other radio equipment shall be added to the equipment furnished in. the aircraft..

,I:.', the AAFi,and CAA. regu.lation's pertaining, there.

.i:times. and' either .the operations', officer

.. charge
m a y. c a n c e l
. flight>' in :the interest,' of

lations % (b).any:' special clearance i and if light regulati6ns

Aeronautics Administrati0n,. (c): C

u n d s a v a l a b ie f or : t h e p a y m e n t : o f .

incident to the care, Operation, and" maintenahce
° ._:

j " A i r F o r c e s a c t i v i t i e s a n d w i l l . b e . i n a c c o r

!:: s p e c i fi c a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d : i n A A F Te c h n i c a l O r d e r s ( I n s t r u c t i o n

' .
accompanying each aircraft. Such manuals are to be found in the data

aS_l AAF aircraft. Under no circumstances shall said manuals be .
-,'. -:J" " '

"CAP Unit
the operation of said aircraft shall not allmt such aircraft to be landed
at Army Air Bases for the _purpose of refueling unless prior permission has
been obtained from the Commanding Officer or Operations Officer of such
a c t i v i t y. " S u c h p e r m i s s i o n s h a l l n o t . b e s o u g h t a t a n y A r m y A i r B a s e w h e r e
AAF flight activities are of such nature and volume that the operation by
CAP of liaison type aircraft would interfere with a busy traffic pattern.

" .At points where"impractiCable to refuel Said AAF liaison type aircraft at Army Air Bases, CAP ,Unit 0ommanders shall make arrangements with
Air Force Supply Officers for the delivery of limited quantities of fueland

lubricants-for the exclusive, use of such aircraft to airports from which same, ' '

a r e b e i n g o. p e r a t e d .
. .
--, . .
. -

and replacement parts and supplies for saxd a

. c r a f t w i l l b e . . f u r n z s h e fl ' b y . t h e n e s r e s t A i r S e r v i c e C o

)?accordance with..current Arn

,A£r Forces and Air Service Command regulations.. i J.i.
-!. Inspe

liaison. type alrcraf%/operatedb

.a:.thorouEh.line inspection prior, to each .day's'

., cov, er.i. all:,app.l£cable, items, listed.on,CAp Form ,No :-653. ,: . /.

tly: Charged with..the:responSibility ofproper/ .)
reread" :-:: .
, Such .a

:.anR 'i"6verhauled fin. accord- ' .:"-' "
iL:'.ance ,with AAE.Teehnical" Orders accompa

rnished-by/ilthe CAP':unit-concerned and labor':

activities shall not be solicited

ng tha% .. same. xs thoroughly -

before %rahsfer to the next CAP u

o take 'possessi6n thereof.:ii

. reported:.to .National Headqdar.ters .by. W£ng.HAaaquarte

.'. . "..
delivery immediately following .such delivery. " Said'reports shall, list.:

, model, series.and ser£al number as follows: . : .

0 eratxons D i r e c t i v e N o . . 4 0 . . . . , . . , , . . . .

n.e.d , * o r: .,l o s t. t.h.r o u g. h

" r a n.s f e r. . o. r. l o s t t ,N r ': '"'

! u J f x r e , . o r : c r a s h s h a l l b e r e p o r t e d ' t o - N a t i o n a l H e a d q u a r t e r s . b y Wi n g H e a d q u a r t e r s

y v i a - a i r m a i l - s p e c i a l - d e l i v e r y. . F o r g a i n s . t h e s e r e p o r t s s h a l l : ' , : . - : .
.',f: . . L.

d e s t r o y e d b y f z r e , : 1 2 r l T, 4 3 - . .

Wing Headquarters: shall suq

.it a. monthly operations report..to

ia airmail-special delivery at-the-close of .operations on the,
fi f t e e n t h d a y. o f e a c h m o n t h

T h e s e r e p o r t s s h a l l . - l i s t - a l l o f . s a i d A A F.

rplanes in the possession of the Wing, gi

s e r i e s " / - a n d s e r i a l n u m b e r o £ e a c h , a n d s h a l l s h o w ( a ) t h e n u m b e r, o f

flight, (c) the number of Aviation Cadet candidates
c a r r i e d

a n d ( d ) t h e A i r WA O c a n d i d a t e s c a r r i e d f o r : e a c h - - s u c h a i r c r. a l t f o r
the monthly .period covered.

liaison type aircra£t, the U

it Commander or the officer acting
for him will immediately n.ohify National Headquarters By telegraph or

brief resume of avam!able information, together with the. :

es',, and sermat, number of the airplane, and the name,a

o l v e d . . - : N a t m o n

y' advised of mXY subsequent

ant develops >. . -.:ilq
: . m e n t s

a c c i d e n t s , a s c i r c u m s t a n c e s m a y. d i c t a t e . . , - " . - :
. . .-..''.

shall, be accomp14 shed in reporting .any. accident . i:. 7 ,. >. . ' '

o ft h e.- a c c.i d.e.n . .i n v o l v i n g

F o r m N O
. . . .
No..26,:"Natibnal.'Headquarters. i'December 19

Shall be' accomplished: and:a: coml

t, shail be kept Under guard..until::femo%ed.-from the scene. .
accident-Or untii taken over
military authorities. "-" ": :"

a c e . a p p l i c a t i o n s S h a l l b e " f L i e d ' t o , c o v e r . . . -,.-.

: a i r p l a n e s . : i L 1

P a t r o l , a s , t h e : G o v e r

d airplanes under official:.operatxons- . ' " "'.

h e r e o f , a r e c o v e r e d . 1

--" . P r o t e c t i o n . P r o g r . s m s e t u p b y t h e P r e s, i d e n t . . . . . . . . . . . -- . . . -. . " : ..7. .

.- accordance. .with the provisions o

..' - ')& ..
to complywith these., provisions will.result in immediate withdrawal of. .
a s s i

, o f . a l l s u c h : a i r c r a f t f r o m . t h e C A P. u n i % . c o n c e r n e d

. a n d . i n p r o p e r : : . " i - . . " . . , . . . : T
d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n a g a i n s t ' m e m b e r s

. ".b-""Continued,violatiofls within a:Wing wiLl.result

n the
of all such AAF airc

By direction of Rational Commander

O p o r a t i o n s O f fi c e r.
".Civil Air Patrol

. KNOW ALLMEN HY THESE PRESenTS that,.whereas, I, .

, I am doing so entirely upon my own initiative, risk

consideration of the permission
r the' United States through its officers.and agents to take
I do hereby for myself, my heirs

executors and administrators, .

dforever-discharge the Government of the United Sta

its officers and agents, acting officially or otherwise, from amy and..

actions or causes of action, .on account of .

account of, any.injury to me which may

d e t h e p r e p a r a t i o n ' f o r, c o n t i n u a t i o n , a n d c o m p l e t i o n o f fi i g h t o

flightslas well as all ground and flight operations incident thereto. It.is
further understood and agreed that this release, among other things, extends
to anti-includes negligence

faulty pilotage, and structura

failure of the
aircraft thereof.

The execution hereof does not operate
conferred by act of Congress.

(Name o f p e r s o n t o b e n o t i fi e d
in emergency)

(Ads of person t8 be notified

The signed release will b e retained in the permanent files of the
station or organization.


mplete line hmpection as covered by this report shall be made of all aircraft in operaUon at the Base or

Station at least once each d

y and, if practicable, before each flight mission. Check satisfactory items and give information
. m

since lO0-hour check_:__:_..-- since major overhaul
. . . . . . . . .

Time on engine since top overhaul

'opeUe'r :
1. Inspect blades for cracks, nicks, and.pits . .
9.. Inspe

hub and attachments carefully . . . . . .
3. Check propeller for track . @

1 . I n s p e c t e n g i n e c o w l i n

f o r e r a c k s a n d s e c u r i t y . _ _ . . . . .

. . .
2. Inspect exhaust atack and ring for cracks and security

3. Check sparkplug terminals for tightness and cleanliness .
4. Inspect accessible ignition wiring and harness for security .
5. Check fuel and oil systems for leaks, vents, fit of caps . . .
6. Check fuel and oil supply (do.not rely on gauges) .
7. Check all bolts and nuts

)n engine and mount . . . .
8. Check with propeller for compression on each cylinder .
9 .
C h e c muffs e a t e r
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

nding Gear':
1. Inspect tires for defects and proper inflation .
2. Inspect wheels for cracks and distortion, hub caps for security .
3. Inspect strut retaining bo]ts and fittings for security .
4. Inspect brace wires for tension and security .

1. Inspect ribs for buckling, end bows, and covering .
2. Inspect attachments, fittings for security .
3. Check struts and flying wires for security of terminal connections .
4. Check aileron hinges, pins, horns, and tabs .
5. Inspect accessible control cable, tubes, and pulleys for security . , . . .

1. Check control surface hinges, pins, horns, and tabs .
. . . .
2. Check stabilizer adjustment and assembly mechanism .
B. Check tail wheel assembly for condition and lubrication .

1. Inspect covering for damage and distortion
.2. Inspect control column assembly and aecessible'p

rts of control" system "for
freedom of movement and security of attachments
8. Check fire extinguisher and first aid kit .
4. Check stabilizer for freedom of movement . . .
5. Check proper operation of quick-release mechanisms of doors
6. Check proper operation of lighting system .
Yo I n s p e c t
s a f e t y o b e l o. t $s f'e o o r

s e c u Qr i t y e . . . . . . . .
8 Clean all windows
1 Inspect antenna and connections . . .
2. Inspect battery and connections . - . . . .

1 . C h e c k p r o p e r o p e r a t i o n o f s i g n a l l i g h t s . . . . . . . . -.. ,

. .
C h e c k
s p a r e
l i g h t
g l o b e s
. . . .

ordnance mounts, racks, and release mechanisms .
2. Inspect ordnance for proper installation and safety keys .
" J. E

1. Check flotation gear .
2. List and check other emergency equipment


  1. Kajikus

    I think, that you commit an error. I can prove it. Write to me in PM.

  2. Emmanuel

    is absolutely in agreement with the previous communication

  3. Daylan

    I hope, you will find the correct decision. Do not despair.

  4. Bingen

    the remarkable phrase

  5. Amaury

    I am sorry, I can help nothing. But it is assured, that you will find the correct decision. Do not despair.

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