Mysterious Viking Sword Made With Technology From the Future?

Mysterious Viking Sword Made With Technology From the Future?



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

By Tara MacIsaac , Epoch Times

The Viking sword Ulfberht was made of metal so pure it baffled archaeologists. It was thought the technology to forge such metal was not invented for another 800 or more years, during the Industrial Revolution.

About 170 Ulfberhts have been found, dating from 800 to 1,000 A.D. A NOVA, National Geographic documentary titled “Secrets of the Viking Sword”, first aired in 2012, took a look at the enigmatic sword’s metallurgic composition.

In the process of forging iron, the ore must be heated to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit to liquify, allowing the blacksmith to remove the impurities (called “slag”). Carbon is also mixed in to make the brittle iron stronger. Medieval technology did not allow iron to be heated to such a high temperature, thus the slag was removed by pounding it out, a far less effective method.

The Ulfberht, however, has almost no slag, and it has a carbon content three times that of other metals from the time. It was made of a metal called “crucible steel.”

A 10th-century double-edged sword inscribed with the name "Ulfberht". Image source .

It was thought that the furnaces invented during the industrial revolution were the first tools for heating iron to this extent.

Modern blacksmith Richard Furrer of Wisconsin spoke to NOVA about the difficulties of making such a sword. Furrer is described in the documentary as one of the few people on the planet who has the skills needed to try to reproduce the Ulfberht.

“To do it right, it is the most complicated thing I know how to make,” he said.

He commented on how the Ulfberht maker would have been regarded as possessing magical powers. “To be able to make a weapon from dirt is a pretty powerful thing,” he said. But, to make a weapon that could bend without breaking, stay so sharp, and weigh so little would be regarded as supernatural.

Furrer spent days of continuous, painstaking work forging a similar sword. He used medieval technology, though he used it in a way never before suspected. The tiniest flaw or mistake could have turned the sword into a piece of scrap metal. He seemed to declare his success at the end with more relief than joy.

It is possible that the material and the know-how came from the Middle East. The Volga trade route between the Viking settlements and the Middle East opened at the same time the first Ulfberhts appeared and closed when the last Ulfberhts were produced.

The article, ‘ Mysterious Viking Sword Made with Technology from the Future’ was originally published on The Epoch Times , and has been republished with permission.

Featured image: An Ulfberht Viking sword. Credit: National Geographic Television


Ulfberht – The Sword made with technology from the future

As a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, this site may earn from qualifying purchases. We may also earn commissions on purchases from other retail websites.

An Example of the Ulfberht sword. Image Credit National Geographic

It was a sword that dominated the battlefield across different regions in Europe, it was a sword a thousand years ahead of its time, built by a mysterious craftsman. Even though it was used by many nations it is a Sword that was attributed to the Vikings and used from about 800 to 1100 AD, it was a masterpiece built from pure steel and wasn’t seen again in Europe for at least a thousand years. It was the Roles Royce of its time and it was used by only a few select warriors.

Why these swords have the inscription of Ulfberht is still an enigma as it does not appear in written texts from that time, it could have been the name of the place it was produced, or it could have been added to to sword to provide proof of authenticity, giving out a statement saying this is the real sword. So far, dozen of forty-four examined Ulfberht swords are proven to be made entirely of crucible steel, though some of the knock-offs are of pretty good quality. The fact that Ulfberht swords appear for over two hundred years, proves that they were not produced by a single craftsmen. According to recent research scholars believe that Ulfberht was in fact a Frankish name.

The cross present on the Ulfberht swords might suggest a connection with the Roman catholic church, as in the middle ages the church dominated the Frankish Empire. It is known that the church was a major producer and dealer of weapons. The Greek cross placed before the name was was a practice only used by bishops and abbots so the name Ulfberht might have been the name of a bishop, abbot or even a monastery.

Dating showed that the swords were very famous in European battlefields and that they were produced over a period of two hundred and fifty years or more — from 850 – 1100 AD which makes researchers believe that Ulfberht was in fact one of the most ancient trademarks, a sign of quality. In Ancient Times Iron Smith’s goal was steel that could strike a hard object and neither bend nor shatter, steel that could hold a sharp edge.

Thousands of Ulfberht swords were found across Europe, most of them found in rivers or-or excavated from Viking burials across Europe and Scandinavia but only around 170 Swords are proven to be the real Ulfberht swords. These ancient masterpieces of weaponry have been buried for centuries and are only corroded skeletons of what they were once.

Smelted Iron was normally used to forge weapons and armor for thousands of years, Iron on its own it too soft to yield a strong weapon that why sword-makers would add carbon from coal or charcoal which hardens the metal and turns it into steel. Typical Viking age swords had low carbon in their characteristics and had a large amount of impurities or slag, a non-metallic part of the ore which was not separated and which weakens the metal.

Blacksmiths across Europe were not able to create Slag-free-steel because their fires were simply not hot enough to liquefy the iron. Today we achieve that by heating the metal to over three thousand degrees which accurately removes slag and allows more carbon to be added.

Comparison between the Steel used in the Ulfberht steel and commonly used steel in the Medieval Era

In the Viking age it was very hard to add coal to the iron so it was done incidentally through fire, and the only way to remove the slag from the metal was to try and hammer out impurities. Researchers believed that the thousands of swords found across the European continent were made from this inferior steel until Dr. Alan Williams, Consultant Archaeometallurgist at the Wallace Collection, analyzed the Ulfberht sword.

Research showed incredible similarities between the steel of the Ulfberht and modern day objects made from steel with a carbon content of up to three times more that the average medieval steel. This places the Ulfberht sword, at least, a thousand years ahead of its time. The metal used in the Ulfberht swords is today known as crucible steel a term that applies to steel made by two different methods in the modern era. It is made by melting iron and other materials in a crucible and pouring the molten metal into a mold. Crucible steel was produced in South and Central Asia during the medieval era. . Wikipedia

At that time, when the Ulfberht sword were produced, no one in Europe knew how to melt Iron at extreme temperatures for centuries, in fact, Crucible steel wasn’t around in Europe until the Industrial revolution in the 18th century, so how did the Vikings manage to get a hold of this advanced technology? The vikings were advanced in many ways, not only were they fearless warriors, they were highly skilled traders and navigators believed to have reached the Americas and Asia.

Swordsmiths across Asia produced the greatest swords in human history, one of the examples is the Damascus steel which has similar chemical compositions to the metal composition of the Ulfberht swords. Many artifacts were discovered in modern day Scandinavia that originated from Asia, India and other Eastern parts of the World.

Islamic coins were commonly traded in Scandinavia. According to researchers most of the Ulfberht swords date almost to the same time when the Volga Trade route was opened, from about 800 to 1100 AD. Scholars believe that the Iron used in the Ulfberht swords actually originated from modern day Iran. Researchers suggest that vikings acquired the need material from friendly merchants in exchange of Scandinavian commodities such as furs.

The Volga trade route lost its importance by the 11th century due to the decline of silver output in the Abbasid caliphate, and thus, the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, which ran down the Dnieper to the Black Sea and the Byzantine Empire, gained more weight. – Wikipedia


Ulfberht’s Perplexing Composition

Carbon can make or break a sword if it’s not controlled to just the right amount, the sword will be either too soft or too brittle. But with just the right amount, carbon greatly strengthens the blade. The Ulfberht has a carbon content about three times higher than that of other swords of its time. It would have been astoundingly stronger and yet more flexible than other swords, as well as light-weight. It also had almost no impurities, known as slag. This would have allowed for a more even distribution of carbon.

It was thought, before Ulfberht was discovered, that the capability to remove slag to such a degree only became possible during the Industrial Revolution. Iron ore must be heated to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit to accomplish this, a feat the Ulfberht makers apparently accomplished 800 years ahead of their time. With great effort and precision, modern blacksmith Richard Furrer of Wisconsin forged a sword of Ulfberht quality using technology that would have been available in the Middle Ages. He said it was the most complicated thing he’d ever made, and he used methods not known to have been used by people of that time.

An Ulfberht sword (Martin Kraft/Wikimedia Commons)

A sword made of Damascus steel. (NearEMPTiness/Wikimedia Commons)


Is a warp drive possible?​​

The distances between the stars are so vast that they can make your brain melt. Take for example the Voyager 1 probe, which has been traveling at 35,000 miles per hour for more than 40 years and was the first human object to cross into interstellar space. That sounds wonderful except, at its current speed, it will still take another 40,000 years to cross the typical distance between stars.

Worse still, if you are thinking about interstellar travel, nature provides a hard limit on acceleration and speed. As Einstein showed, it's impossible to accelerate any massive object beyond the speed of light. Since the galaxy is more than 100,000 light-years across, if you are traveling at less than light speed, then most interstellar distances would take more than a human lifetime to cross. If the known laws of physics hold, then it seems a galaxy-spanning human civilization is impossible.

Unless of course you can build a warp drive.


Worlds Deadliest

Scholars of Norse mythology determined that February 22 of this year was supposed to be the date of Ragnarok, the Vikings’ (frankly pretty awesome) version of the apocalypse.[1] Fortunately we were spared, but it might be time to brush up on your swordsmanship just in case. And if you need to fend off frost giants, or anything else for that matter, there is no better blade to have with you than an Ulfberht.

Ulfberht was a legendary Viking sword, one of the best pre-modern weapons ever made.[2] It was not a single sword, like Excalibur, or a type of sword, like a katana. Ulfberht was actually more like a brand name, only instead of signifying your wealth or trendiness, it signified your ability to kick ass on the battlefield. The name comes from the inscription found on the blade, +ULFBERH+T, which makes them easy to identify and also forms one of Ulfberht’s mysteries.

Ulfberht is assumed to be a Frankish word, though its meaning is unknown. The word may be a “word of power” which is a word not part of normal language that Vikings believed to be magical. Or perhaps it is a contraction or a portmanteau of some other words that we do not know. The word does resemble a mashup of the Norse word “ulfr,” meaning wolf and the Saxon word “beraht,” meaning bright or shining. So, carrying an Ulfberht may have meant that not only would you survive in a fight, but that you could brag about doing it brandishing a “shining wolf.”[3]

A popular theory is that Ulfberht is the name of a workshop, or the family name of its creator. We know that Ulfberht is not the name of a single smith who crafted each blade, because the swords were crafted over a period of 200 years. So the sword must have either been created by a number of people from the same family or community, or possibly by a Highlander.[4]

Another strange quality of the sword has convinced experts that Ulfberhts all come from one place. The swords are incredibly strong and well-made, easily besting any other sword a Viking would have had access to. The secret lies in the weapon’s steel. Swords at the time were brittle and full of impurities thanks to inefficient smithing techniques and the relatively low temperature at which the steel was melted. Ulfberhts, however, were made of crucible steel purer than anything made in Europe. In fact, Japan wouldn’t see a sword made of equal steel until 300 – 500 years after the Ulfberht.[5] The steel was made in furnaces that could reach 3,000 degrees. Europeans would not develop that technology until the Industrial Revolution, so going into battle against a Viking wielding an Ulfberht must have felt something like facing off against a machine gun with a bow and arrow. It is speculated that even the best Viking smith could not make this steel on their own, so they relied instead on their next best non-pillaging-related skills: sailing and trading.

There were places where crucible steel could be made at the time of the Vikings, in what we would now call the Middle East and Central Asia. Many artifacts have been found in Viking settlements from these regions: including coins, jewelry, and statues. We also know that there was a trade route directly from Scandinavia to modern-day Iran by way of the Volga River.[6] In fact, the latest examples of Ulfberhts we know of, come from right around the time when the Volga trade route was in decline. So it seems likely enough that Ulfberhts creators could have loaded up a boat with furs and helmets and giant casks of mead, took a quick jaunt down the Volga River, and returned with everything they needed to make their nigh-indestructible swords from the steel of the future.

At a glance, though, these swords would look like any other, except for the inscription. That led Alan Williams, author of The Sword and the Crucible, to uncover a case of ancient fraud.[7] Williams examined 44 of the nearly 200 Ulfberhts that have been discovered, and found that three-quarters of them were, as far as their steel was concerned, not Ulfberhts at all. They were standard swords made of the same metal as any other blade, but inscribed with the word Ulfberht. However, instead of the inscription +ULFBERH+T found on the genuine swords, the fakes were inscribed +ULFBERHT+. This led to the theory that these inferior blades were actually bootlegs, stamped with the name to attract unwary buyers. It was the Viking equivalent of buying a “Polex” watch from a shady vendor in Central Park.

We may never know who made the Ulfberht, how they first found out about crucible steel, why no one else learned about their steel supply, or even what the name itself means. Ulfberht’s creators kept these secrets so well that they have endured for a millennium, and it’s likely that they will remain a mystery.


Studying Strategic Tools of Deflection

If you’ve ever bought a smartphone cover east of Istanbul, the happiness in only having spent a couple of dollars is unavoidably negated after the first shower of rain or accidental drop when rushing in a crowd. This kind of frugality caused the loss of thousands of lives in the early Iron Age , as Germanic warriors fell to the ground due to having second-rate protector-skins for their shields which inevitably fell to pieces during the traumas of battle.


Simple visual overview of some of the main results of the research study. (Rolf Warming /
Society for Combat Archaeology )

By the transition of the Germanic Iron Age into the Viking Age, in the mid-9 th century, the selection, treatment and application of animal hides for shield skins had advanced to take into account many factors and to increase the strength of the shield. However, the exact methods used in the late Iron Age and Viking Age to make shields was an archaeological mystery until the publication of this new study. By adopting new analytical methods, the research team has answered not only what type of animal skin products were preferred, but it also enables for the reconstruction of ancient shields, opening the door to research into how these devices of deflection were used during war, both tactically and strategically.

Thanks to their results, the research team was able to complete the first authentic Viking shield replica, seen here. It was made as part of a separate collaboration project between the Society for Combat Archaeology and Trelleborg Viking Fortress (part of the National Museum of Denmark). (Tom Jersø / The Viking Shield Project)


A Mysterious 25,000-Year-Old Structure Built of the Bones of 60 Mammoths

In Russia, an unusually large structure from the last ice age has been uncovered, built from the bones of dozens of woolly mammoths. It’s the oldest known structure of its kind, dating back some 25,000 years, but its purpose is not entirely clear.

In the geological record, circular structures constructed from mammoth bones are remarkably common, dating to about 22,000 years ago and occurring during most of Eastern Europe’s ice age.

Scientists working at the Kostenki 11 site near the Don River near the Russian city of Voronezh, have discovered the largest structure yet a 41-foot (12.5-meter) wide structure made of hundreds of woolly mammoth bones.

The dwelling was radiocarbon dated to 25,000 years old, making it the oldest known mammoth bone structure in the world. Details of this remarkable discovery were published today in Antiquity.

These structures are typically surrounded by a series of large pits, the purpose of which isn’t known. It’s possible the pits were a place to store food or bones used for burning. They could’ve also been a place to dump waste or quarries that formed during construction. As to the overall purpose of the mammoth-bone structures themselves, that’s also unclear.

“Other than being explained as ‘dwellings,’ sites of this type have previously been interpreted as having potential ritual significance,” Alexander Pryor, the first author of the new study and a researcher from the University of Exeter, said in an email to Gizmodo. “However, exactly what this ritual significance might have been is difficult to say from archaeology alone.”

This is not the first time that archaeologists have found a mammoth bone structure at Kostenki 11. Back in the 1950s and 1960s, Soviet scientists found a pair of smaller structures, also made from mammoth bones.

In 2013, archaeologists were conducting surveys in the area when they stumbled upon the third structure at Kostenki 11, which is located on the Russian Plain and approximately 520 kilometers (323 miles) due south of Moscow. Excavations lasted for three years and included a technique known as floatation, in which water and sieves are used to separate archaeological material from the soil. A key advantage of this approach is that it allows for the discovery of exceptionally small remnants and artifacts.

That Pleistocene humans living in Eastern Europe at the time would bother to build such structures is definitely a surprise. Hunter-gatherers of the Upper Paleolithic lived mobile, nomadic lifestyles, and making permanent structures is not something typically associated with their mode of existence.

“Sourcing so many mammoth bones, from at least 60 different mammoths, is a significant challenge,” said Pryor. “These would have been gathered either from recent kills or by scavenging bones from long-dead carcasses found around the landscape. Either way, mammoth bones are really heavy, particularly when fresh, and simply carrying the bones around would have taken an enormous amount of work.”

No signs of butchery were found on the bones, but Pryor said that’s not altogether surprising. These animals were so big that it was relatively easy to remove meat and fats without leaving obvious traces on the bones, he said. A similar thing has been documented in modern times, in which humans butchered elephants using metal knives and without marking the bones, he added.

Using the floatation technique, the researchers uncovered evidence of charcoal, burnt bone, bits of stone tools, and soft plant tissue associated with edible roots or tubers. Excitingly, the discovery hints at the foods eaten by Upper Paleolithic humans in Central Europe. What’s more, the site yielded the first meaningful collection of charred plant remains from a site of this kind, which means trees were still around in the area during the frigid time period, according to the new research.

The humans who built these structures burned their wood inside, so the dwelling likely served as a refuge from the harsh ice age winters and possibly year-round, according to the authors. It might have also been a place to store and stockpile food.

“If at least some of these mammoths were hunted, this is going to generate a lot of food from each kill,” said Pryor. “Therefore, preserving and storing that food could be a really significant part of what humans were doing there,” but more research will be required to suss this out, he said. And indeed, the next stage of the project will focus on the potential role of the structure as a place to store and stockpile food.

The structure might have also carried ritualistic significance perhaps it was some kind of shrine or monument in honor of woolly mammoths. That mammoths held an important spiritual role in the lives of these humans is not a stretch of the imagination.

Importantly, Pryor and his colleagues could not find evidence consistent with the idea that the dwellings were a place for long-term, day-to-day habitation.

“It is difficult to imagine how an area this large could have been roofed,” Pryor told Gizmodo. “Some of the bones that make up the ring were found in articulation—for example groups of vertebrae—indicating that at least some of the bones still had cartilage and fat attached when they were added to the pile. This would have been smelly, and would have attracted scavengers including wolves and foxes, which is not great if this was a dwelling.”

There weren’t many stone chips at the site linked to the manufacture of stone tools, compared to similar sites. “This suggests the intensity of activity at the site was lower than might be expected from a dwelling and was a real surprise given the time and effort invested by the people that built the site,” Pryor said.

This discovery shows that hunter-gatherers were more crafty and strategic than is typically assumed. Instead of mindlessly following animal herds and picking nuts and berries along the way, these humans were actively planning for the future and building structures accordingly. At least, if this particular interpretation is correct. Hopefully the team will succeed during the next stage of the project and shed new light on this remarkable structure.


NOVA "Secrets of the Viking Sword"

The Vikings were among the fiercest warriors of all time, and a select few carried the ultimate weapon: a sword nearly 1,000 years ahead of its time. But the secrets behind this super sword’s design, creation and use have remained hidden for centuries. Now, through a mix of science, archeology, metallurgy and history, a new NOVA/National Geographic co-production unravels the mystery and re-creates this Viking uber-weapon – the Ulfberht sword —to kick off the new fall season of NOVA. Secrets of the Viking Sword premieres Wednesday, October 10, 2012 at 9 p.m. on WXXI-TV/HD (DT 21.1/cable 1011 and 11).

Fashioned using a process unknown to the Vikings’ rivals, the Ulfberht sword was a revolutionary high-tech blade as well as a work of art. Considered by some to be one of the greatest swords ever made, it remains a fearsome weapon more than a millennium after it last saw battle. But how did master swordsmiths of the Middle Ages come up with the Ulfberht’s complex recipe, and what was its role in history? So far, no one has been able to forge a metallurgically accurate Ulfberht.

Produced between 800 to 1000 AD, the Ulfberht offered unique advantages as a weapon. Its combination of strength, lightness, and flexibility represented the perfect marriage of form and function in the chaos that was a Viking battle. Thousands of Viking swords have since been found, most discovered in rivers or excavated from burials across Scandinavia and Northern Europe. Of those, only 171 are marked Ulfberht-- most only corroded skeletons of once magnificent blades--further cloaking the mysteries of what some experts deem the ultimate weapon of the fiercest warriors.

In Secrets of the Viking Sword, NOVA and National Geographic follow modern day swordsmith Ric Furrer as he endeavors to become the first person in a thousand years to bring this mysterious sword back to life. Furrer reverse engineers this legendary sword with the help of new findings about the chemistry of the Ulfberht’s steel. Viewers will watch every step of the way as he uses period tools and methods to build a special oven, heat and cool the raw iron, and skillfully wield the mallet to shape and forge the metal by hand, hammer blow by powerful hammer blow.

One of the deepest mysteries scientists have grappled with surrounding the sword has been the metallic composition of the Ulfberht, which was forged from high quality steel that would not be seen again in Europe until the advent of industrial blast furnaces nearly 1,000 years later. Most weapons from Viking times were comprised of “bloomery iron,” a low-carbon material that was relatively soft and brittle. The Ulfberht blade, however, was made from high-carbon steel that was smelted in a sealed crucible or small furnace, and slowly allowed to cool. This gave this sword flexibility and strength far ahead of its time. But the novel material used was not found anywhere else in Europe in the Middle Ages. So where did the crucible steel come from? To unravel the mystery and build the case, NOVA/National Geographic take viewers on a journey to find the source of the imported raw material and figure out how it got to Scandinavia. Tantalizing, recently found clues from Viking graves tie the import of the steel to the exploits of Viking traders, who voyaged all the way to Constantinople down the Volga river.

These adventurous Viking merchants and warriors made connections with suppliers of the high quality steel, which had probably been forged somewhere in Persia or Afghanistan. The mystique and notoriety of the Ulfbehrt sword stemmed not just from its unusual material but also from the intangible value of its name. The inlay of twisted bloomery steel spelling out the name Ulfberht on the crucible steel blade was an extremely risky process the wrong timing or temperature could crack or ultimately break the blade. [As Furrer discovers, the inlaying of the name requires a highly skilled craftsman.] To this day, the “Ulf-behrt” trademark and the symbol of a cross remain an enigma to experts. Both indicate however that the sword was a coveted weapon forged by a master craftsman. Recent finds by archaeologists show that the Ulfberht signature was so highly regarded that contemporary fakes and knock-offs were made by imitators, some with misspelled inlays, using an inferior, lower-carbon steel. These probably had value simply as status symbols or for their psychological impact, instilling fear and dread in enemies from the sight of the name alone.

Secrets of the Viking Sword delves into the intriguing process of how science is helping to bring the Ulfbehrt back to life. The film demonstrates the dramatic and extremely challenging forging process as it unfolds, step-by-step, and illustrates how technology and innovation enabled craftsmen to create one of the greatest weapons of all time.


Composition & Quality of the Ulfberht Swords

What makes the Ulfberht blades so special is the fact that these blades’ metal was comparable to the strength and quality of modern steel. Most Viking blades and the blades in the rest of Europe made at the time were composed of low-quality steel that could shatter like glass. This is the reason why it is such an enigma how the Ulfberht swords were so advanced when medieval blacksmiths in Europe have yet to possess the knowledge and technology to make weapons as strong, as light and as flexible as the blades that were widely made and could only have existed several centuries later.

To create a sword in the same quality as the Ulfberht blades, the inclusion and distribution of carbon is key. If a sword’s carbon content is not controlled to just the right amount, the sword will either be too soft or too brittle. However, with just the right amount of carbon, this element can significantly strengthen the blade. In fact, the carbon content of Ulfberht swords is about three times higher than that of the bladed weapons around the same time.

Also, in the process of forging iron, the ore has to be liquefied so that the blacksmith could remove the metal’s impurities known as “slag.” To make the ore’s liquefication possible, it must be heated to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, which is what is done in modern times. However, what’s interesting about this is that medieval blacksmiths in Europe could not make slag-free steel because their fires were not hot enough to completely liquefy the iron. Instead, in the Viking era, carbon could mainly be introduced through coal in the fire, and the only way to remove the slag from the metal was to just try to hammer out the impurities with every strike.


1. Use of Stone Spheres of Costa Rica is still a mystery

Rodtico21/via Wikimedia

Numerous myths surround the Giant Stone Spheres of Costa Rica, one being that these originated from Atlantis, or that they were made commonly. It has been claimed that the spheres are perfect, or very near perfect in roundness

Although scientists may have an accurate idea of this ancient invention and how these Giant stone balls in Costa Rica were formed. The local occupants approached an elixir ready to mellow the stone. Limestone, for instance, can be broken down by acidic arrangements acquired from plants. Research drove by Joseph Davidovits of the Geopolymer Institute in France has been offered on the side of this hypothesis.

But the reason of why they did it is still a mystery. Some gullible vandals even blew the balls up, hoping to find gold in these balls. (They didn’t.)

Now since you have read about these mysterious Ancient Inventions, you might like reading about these 10 Mysterious Books from History that known one has an explanation about. You might also like 10 Last Minute Decisions that Changed the World.


Watch the video: Ulfberht Viking Sword - MAN AT ARMS:REFORGED