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Dublin 33 best things to do in Dublin

Of course I am bound to be biased with Dublin being where I was born! However the likes of Lonely Planet, TripAdvisor and so many more can't be wrong. Dublin was voted the world's friendliest city by Lonely Planet for a few years in a row.

The Dublin vibe is a beautiful blend of art, literary license, Dublin wit, Irish craic, shaken and possibly not stirred with great architecture, green spaces and life changing experiences. with heaps of history and culture.

Feeling a bit overwhelmed about where to start? Then read on to check out the top 33 top things to do in Dublin, as voted by TripAdvisor reviewers. Also when in Dublin it would be a shame not to see some live music, check out the best Dublin pubs for live music.

33 best things to do in Dublin

1. Irish Whiskey Museum

The Irish Whiskey Museum located in the heart of Dublin City first opened its doors in November 2014 and, since opening, the growth of the whiskey industry in Ireland continues apace.

The origins of the Irish Whiskey Museum lies in the desire of owner Keith McDonnell to tell the great untold stories of Irish whiskey in a market that was beginning to grow rapidly, where there was clearly a resurgence of interest in a product that has so many great stories attached to it and is always synonymous with the Irish.

The guided tour through five rooms, 4 of which are themed to represent a particular period in Irish history, tells visitors the intriguing tales of Irish whiskey from how the monks first produced this famous spirit in the 12th century,to the golden era of Irish whiskey, when the big whiskey players like John Jameson and George Roe played a vital role in the development of the whiskey industry in Ireland.

Visitors also get an insight into the massive downturn in production and sales of Irish whiskey, going from 120-200 distilleries in the 1800s to only having four by the 1950s/60s and Irish whiskey sales plummeted, to back to where we are now, enjoying a new golden age. The 5th and final room of the tour, the Tasting Room, is where visitors get to taste and compare 3 or 4 very different Irish whiskies under the excellent guidance of a tasting expert.

Located at the main entrance of Trinity College, the Irish Whiskey Museum is the most centrally located visitor attraction in Dublin. Relax in our contemporary bar and taste some fine Irish whiskeys, Irish Coffee or whiskey cocktails, while taking in the beautiful grounds of Trinity College from above.

2. Jameson Distillery Bow St.

In 1780 John Jameson threw open the doors of the Jameson Distillery Bow St. Over 200 years later, the doors are still open to friends old and new. Come for a distillery tour, a premium whiskey tasting experience, learn how to blend your own take-home whiskey, master the craft of whiskey cocktail making here in our home or draw whiskey straight from a Jameson cask in Dublin's only live maturation warehouse. All right here in the beating heart of Dublin, Smithfield.

3.Kilmainham Gaol

Kilmainham Gaol opened in 1796 as the new County Gaol for Dublin. It closed its doors in 1924. Today the building symbolises the tradition of militant and constitutional nationalism from the rebellion of 1798 to the Irish Civil War of 1922-23. Leaders of the rebellions of 1798, 1803, 1848,1867 and 1916 were detained and in some cases executed here.

Many members of the Irish Republican movement during the Anglo-Irish War (1919-21) were also detained in Kilmainham Gaol, guarded by British troops. Names such as Henry Joy McCracken, Robert Emmet, Anne Devlin, Charles Stewart Parnell and the leaders of 1916 will always be associated with the building.

It should not be forgotten however that, as a county gaol, Kilmainham held thousands of ordinary men, women and children. Their crimes ranged from petty offences such as stealing food to more serious crimes such as murder or rape. Convicts from many parts of Ireland were held here for long periods waiting to be transported to Australia. Kilmainham Gaol Museum is operated and managed by the Office of Public Works.

Guided Tours: Entrance to Kilmainham Gaol is by guided tour only and is managed through timed tickets. Advance booking online is essential to guarantee entry. Tickets can be booked online 60 days in advance. Cancellation tickets for the day will be released online every morning between 9:15am-9:30am.

4. EPIC The Irish Emigration Museum

You won’t find leprechauns or pots of gold here, but you’ll discover that what it means to be Irish expands far beyond the borders of Ireland through the stories of Irish emigrants who became scientists, politicians, poets, artists and even outlaws all over the world. Discover Ireland from the outside in and find out why saying “I’m Irish” is one of the biggest conversation starters, no matter where you are.

History: Discover how the Irish influenced and shaped the world.

Emigrant Letters: See the world through the eyes of the Irish men and women who left through their letters to home.

Interactive Touch Screens: Don’t just learn about history, reach out, touch and engage with it.

Music and Dance: Ireland is as much bodhrans and tin whistles as it is Bruce Springsteen and Rihanna. Find out how Irish music has influenced everything from pop to rock, while putting your feet to work following the steps of the world famous Riverdance.

Rogues’ Gallery: The good, the bad and the infamous. It’s not all rainbows and green hills, practice your quick-draw with our motion detector Irish outlaws quiz.

Whispering Library: Some of the world’s most famous authors throughout history are Irish. Don’t take our word for it, take theirs, with our whispering library.

Irish Family History Centre: Discover some of your own history with a consultant from our professional genealogy service partners located within EPIC.

5. The Little Museum of Dublin

The Little Museum of Dublin tells the story of the Irish capital. This award-winning museum is located in a Georgian townhouse in the very centre of the city.

Described as “Dublin’s best museum experience” by the Irish Times, we are also the number one museum in Ireland on TripAdvisor.

Photo credit: Little Museum of Dublin

All visitors to the museum join one of our famous guided tours, which are included in the price of your ticket. Please note that the museum has limited capacity, and our guided tours often sell out.

6. Teeling Whiskey Distillery

This 1-hour tour of Teeling Whiskey Distillery in Dublin offers a behind-the-scenes look at one of the only operational distilleries in the city. Learn about the whiskey-making process as your guide takes you through the barrel rooms and distillery areas to learn more about the single-malt, small-batch, and single-grain whiskeys made here. Plus, at the end of your tour, sample Teeling Whiskey before grabbing a marker and signing the walls of the hip hangout area near the gift shop.

Experience the sights, sounds smells and tastes of a fully operational distillery on a guided tour followed by a tasting of Teeling's award-winning whiskeys.

7. Glasnevin Cemetery Museum

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Exhibitions at Glasnevin Cemetery Museum include:

Now Open: Ireland and the Great Flu 1918-1919. This year marks, 2019, the centenary of the influenza pandemic that killed millions worldwide and ten of thousands in Ireland. As the largest burial place in Ireland the outbreak of influenza had a significant impact on Glasnevin Cemetery. Office staff, gravediggers, attendants, chaplains, and other cemetery employees struggled under immense pressure as they dealt with the consequences of the outbreak.

This exhibition will explore the story of the great flu from an international, national and regional perspective through the unique prism of Glasnevin Cemetery. This exhibition was created in conjunction with the School of History and Humanities at Trinity College Dublin.

'City of the Dead' is a history of the cemetery, Glasnevin Trust and even a reconstructed exhibition of how a grave robber conducted his grim business. The Interactive Timeline allows visitors to get a glimpse of Glasnevin past and present.

8. Trinity College Dublin

Founded in 1592, Trinity College Dublin is Ireland's oldest university. It is where I studied Pure History. If you haven't seen the film that was released in 1983, Educating Rita, this classic is a real treat to see when you have visited Trinity College!! Check out a young Julie Walters teetering on her heels as she walks across Trinity's cobblestones.

Trinity was set up in part to consolidate the rule of the Tudor monarchy in Ireland, and it was the university of the Protestant Ascendancy for much of its history. Roman Catholics had been permitted to enter as early as 1753,although certain restrictions on their membership of the college remained until 1873. However the Catholic Church in Ireland forbade its adherents from attending until the late 20th century. It wasn't until 1904 that women were first admitted to the college as full members.

Trinity College is a legal deposit library for Ireland and the United Kingdom, and therefore legally entitled to a copy of every book published in Great Britain and Ireland and consequently receives over 100,000 new items every year. The Library contains circa five million books, including 30,000 current serials and significant collections of manuscripts, maps, and printed music.

Image by Picography from Pixabay

The Book of Kells is by far the Library's most famous book and is located in the Old Library, along with the Book of Durrow, the Book of Howth and other ancient texts. Also incorporating the Long Room, the Old Library is one of Ireland's biggest tourist attractions, and holds thousands of rare, very early, volumes.

9. Guinness Storehouse

At one stage I lived very close to the Guinness Storehouse. It didn't matter what time of the day or night it was, I could poke my nose out the door and smell the hops wafting around in the air.

Located in the heart of the St. James's Gate Brewery, the Guinness Storehouse® is Ireland's most popular tourist attraction. It's the home of the Black Stuff, the heart of Dublin and an unforgettable start to your Irish adventure.

Photo credit: Guinness Storehouse

The journey begins at the bottom of the world's largest pint glass and continues up through seven floors filled with interactive experiences that fuse our long brewing heritage with Ireland's rich history. At the top, you'll be rewarded with a pint of perfection in our world-famous rooftop Gravity Bar. Now that's our kind of higher education.

10. Phoenix Park

The Phoenix Park is the largest enclosed public park in any capital city in Europe. It was originally formed as a royal hunting Park in the 1660's and opened to the public in 1747. A large herd of fallow deer still remain to this day. The Park is also home to the Zoological Gardens, Áras an Uachtaráin, and Victorian flower gardens. The Phoenix Park is only a mile and a half from O’Connell Street.

Both passive and active recreational pursuits may be viewed or pursued such as walking, running, polo, cricket, hurling, and many more. The Glen Pond is set in very scenic surrounds in the Furry Glen. There are many walks and cycle trails available to the public.

The Phoenix Park is open 24 hrs a day, 7 days a week, all year round. The main gates of the Park at Parkgate Street and Castleknock Gate are open 24 hours. The side gates to the Park are open from approximately 7 am until approximately 10.45 pm.

Image by Sharon Ang from Pixabay

11. National Museum of Ireland - Archaeology

At the National Museum of Ireland - Archaeology, Kildare Street, you'll find artefacts dating from 7000BC to the 20th Century exhibited in seven galleries. The Treasury exhibition space has been reopened after a major refurbishment where you can see iconic artefacts such as the Ardagh Chalice, the Tara Brooch and the Derrynaflan Hoard, plus the Faddan More Psalter exhibition.

Photo credit: Merrion Square

Make sure to visit the Kingship and Sacrifice exhibition which includes recently found bog bodies. Ór – Ireland’s Gold exhibition is one of the largest and most important gold collections in Europe.

Featured in the fascinating Ancient Egypt exhibition are the gilt and painted cartonnage case of the mummy Tentdinebu, as well as a number of important stelae, tomb furniture, offering tables, jewellery and household objects.
Not to be missed is the Viking Ireland exhibition. At the centre of this exhibition is a display of finds from the Museum’s Dublin excavations, carried out between 1962 and 1981.

12. St Stephens Green

If it is a sunny day in Dublin, there's almost nothing nicer than hanging out in Dublin's version of Central Park: St. Stephen's Green.

St. Stephen's Green was re-opened by Lord Ardilaun in 1880 for the citizens of Dublin. This nine hectare / 22 acre park, in Dublin City Centre, has been maintained in the original Victorian layout with extensive perimeter tree and shrub planting and spring and summer Victorian bedding.

Photo credit: YogaHub

The herbaceous border also provides colour from early spring to late autumn. Sanctuary from inclement weather can be obtained in the Victorian lakeside shelter or in the Victorian Swiss shelters in the center of the park.

Over 3.5 km of pathways are accessible for all users. The park features a waterfall and Pulham rock work on the western side of the green and an ornamental lake which provides a home for waterfowl. A number of sculptures are located throughout the green. A children's playground is also available in the park. Lunchtime concerts are performed during the summer months.

Facilities include, public toilets, playground, garden for the visually impaired. Please note St. Stephen's Green closes according to daylight hours.

13. Dublin Zoo

Dublin Zoo is much more than a fun-filled, stimulating day out for all the family. it’s a place to learn about wild animals, especially endangered species. Dublin Zoo is a registered charity – your visit will help maintain Dublin Zoo to a high standard, develop new habitats and experiences and contribute to conservation programmes.

Image by Paul O'Neill from Pixabay

Located in the Phoenix Park in the heart of Dublin city, Dublin Zoo is Ireland’s most popular family attraction, and welcomes over one million a year.

As one of the world’s oldest and most popular zoos, the 28 hectare park in the heart of Dublin is home to some 400 animals in a safe environment where education and conservation combine for an exciting and unforgettable experience!

14. National Botanic Gardens

The National Botanic Gardens of Ireland are an oasis of calm and beauty, and entry is free. A premier scientific institution, the gardens contain important collections of plant species and cultivars from all over the world. The National Botanic Gardens in Dublin are located in Glasnevin, just three kilometres from Dublin City Centre, and are famous for the exquisitely restored historic glasshouses.

The National Botanic Gardens in Wicklow are located in Kilmacurragh, where the milder climate, higher rainfall, and deeper, acidic soils of this historic Wicklow garden, provide a counterpoint to the collections at Glasnevin. The two gardens have been closely associated since 1854.

15. Saint Patrick's Cathedral

The Cathedral is a place where history is alive and tradition breathes, where lives are remembered and transformed, and where all are welcome to experience and explore the loving presence of God.

Since Saint Patrick baptised Christian converts nearby over 1500 years ago, this holy site has been a place of spiritual encounter for countless generations. Visit us and experience our history, our place in the life of the city, and our tradition of worship.

16. Croke Park Stadium Tour & GAA Museum

From as young as I can remember, I went to Croke Park at the weekend to see GAA matches with my Dad. The GAA has played a very important role in the paternal side of my family. In fact my Uncle Marcus de Burca was commissioned to write the official centenary GAA history.

Croke Park has been at the heart of Irish sporting life for over 100 years. With a capacity of 82,300, this magnificent stadium is actually the third largest in Europe.

Photo credit: Croke Park

Its size is only part of its greatness, however, as you’ll discover on this eye-opening, access-all-areas tour. From quirky insights into why Croke Park’s grass is always greener to learning about defining moments in Irish history, the passionate Tour Guides will take you on an inspiring journey around our national stadium.

Ranked as one of the best things to do in Dublin, some of the highlights include taking a seat in the VIP area, getting a birds-eye view from the media centre, sneaking a peek inside the dressing rooms, and of course, walking in the footsteps of Gaelic games legends as you go pitchside through the players’ tunnel!

17. Chester Beatty Library

Described by Lonely Planet as ‘not just the best museum in Ireland but one of the best in Europe’, the Chester Beatty is the pre-eminent Irish museum promoting the appreciation and understanding of world cultures with holdings of manuscripts, rare books, and other treasures from Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Asia.

Photo credit: Chester Beatty Library

An engaging and welcoming space, visitors from Ireland and overseas will find permanent and temporary displays, an intercultural learning programme and a broad variety of public activities for all ages and backgrounds.

18. National Gallery of Ireland

The National Gallery of Ireland brings back childhood memories for me as I used to do summer art workshops there. These days the website of the National Gallery sums it up so well about why you should visit. Here are the top 3 reasons to visit, but their article lists 10 reasons!

1. It's free! A visit to the National Gallery of Ireland is free. Since 1854, when it opened its doors for the first time, the National Gallery of Ireland has always believed that the National Collection is the nation’s collection and as such is available for your pleasure almost all year round. For 361 days a year the National Gallery of Ireland will inspire, delight and entertain you with tours, workshops, lectures and Thursday Lates events, all for free.

2. Family fun - Is your child a tiny Tintoretto, a mini Monet or a pint-sized Picasso? If so grab an ‘art backpack’ or a children’s audio guide and explore and create at the National Gallery! Sundays are family days at the Gallery, with free drop-in workshops in the Maples Group Creative Space from 11.30 am-1.30 pm, and a tour of the collection especially for younger visitors at 12.30 pm! Check out our What’s On calendar for information on upcoming events or follow the National Gallery of Ireland through Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.

3. World class exhibitions - The Gallery boasts a rich and varied programme of world class exhibitions throughout the year. Opening 13 April, Shaping Ireland: Landscapes in Irish Art spans 250 years of landscape art, and includes photography, sculpture, painting and video. Tickets cost from €5 (after 5 pm on Thursdays) to €15, and Friends of the Gallery and under 18's go free.


The Geocaching Junkie

Dublin may be ranked 18th in the Top 20 Most Expensive Cities in Europe, but there are plenty of attractions that will give you a real flavour of the city without costing a thing.

1. Natural History Museum

Location: Merrion Street, Dublin 2

Opening Hours: Tuesday – Saturday, 10am – 5pm Sunday, 2pm – 5pm. Closed Mondays, Christmas Day & Good Friday

Affectionately known as the ‘Dead Zoo’, the Natural History Museum located on Merrion Street is a great day out for kids and adults alike. The museum features cabinet-style exhibitions of animals native to Ireland, as well as more exotic mammals.

Don’t miss: The statue of Oscar Wilde in nearby Merrion Square. The playwright lived at 1, Merrion Square as a child.

2. National Gallery

Location: Merrion Square West, Dublin 2

Opening Hours: Monday – Saturday, 9:15am – 5:30pm Thursday, 9:15am – 8:30pm Sunday, 11am – 5:30pm

Just around the corner on Merrion Square West, is the National Gallery of Ireland, which houses paintings by some of the greats including Van Gogh, Monet, Carvaggio and Rembrandt.

The Gallery also has many excellent temporary exhibitions – check out theirwebsite to see what’s on when you visit.

Don’t miss: The Yeats Collection, comprising of works from Jack B. Yeats as well as various material related to his family most notably his father, John Butler Yeats.

3. Collins Barracks Museum

Location: Benburb Street, Dublin 7

Opening Hours: Tuesday – Saturday, 10am – 5pm Sunday, 2pm – 5pm. Closed Mondays, Christmas Day & Good Friday

Collins Barracks, located on Arbour Hill, has been home to the National Museum of Decorative Arts & History since 1997. The barracks housed both the British and Irish Armies over three centuries, making it the oldest continuously used example in the world.

Ireland has a rich and complex history and there is no better place to learn about it than at Collins Barracks.

Don’t miss: Croppy Acres near the River Liffey – the site of a mass grave where many rebels who fought in the Rebellion of 1798 were buried.

4. War Memorial Gardens

Location: Islandbridge, Dublin 8

Opening Hours: The gardens open at 8am Monday – Friday and 10am Saturday and Sunday. Closing times are according to daylight hours.

The Gardens are dedicated to the memory of the 49,400 Irish soldiers killed during World War I. The names of the soldiers are transcribed in manuscripts kept in the impressive granite bookrooms (access to the bookrooms is by appointment only).

A great alternative to the nearby Phoenix Park, you can often see rowers practicing on the River Liffey, which runs adjacent to the Gardens.

Don’t miss: The sunken rose gardens when they are in full bloom from spring to autumn.

5. Chester Beatty Library

Location: Dublin Castle, Dublin 2

Opening Hours: 1st May – 30th September: Monday – Friday, 10am – 5pm 1 October – 30 April: Tuesday – Friday, 10am – 5pm Saturday (year round): 11 am – 5pm Sunday (year round): 1pm – 5pm Closed: Good Friday, 24th – 26th December, 1st January and Monday public holidays.

The library houses the vast collections of Sir Alfred Chester Beatty, bequeathed to the State upon his death in 1968. Chester Beatty accumulated a stunning treasury of manuscripts, miniature paintings, drawings, rare books, prints and decorative arts from all over the world.

Particularly impressive is the selection of illustrated copies of religious texts, including the Qur’an and the Bible.

Don’t miss: The Record Tower nearby in the Castle grounds, which functioned as a prison in the 16th Century.

6. Diving Bell Museum

Location: Sir John Rogerson’s Quay, Dublin 2

Opening Hours: Access to the museum is available 24/7

Dublin’s newest (and smallest) museum, the 140-year-old Dublin Port Diving Bell was in use for almost 90 years as part of the construction of the city’s quay walls.

In late 2015, it was restored and elevated on a metal structure, where you can pass underneath and read about its historical significance while walking over a water feature.

Don’t miss: The view of the iconic Convention Centre and the Samuel Beckett Bridge from here.

7. Archaeology Museum

Location: Kildare Street, Dublin 2

Opening Hours: Tuesday – Saturday, 10am – 5pm Sunday, 2pm – 5pm. Closed Mondays, Christmas Day & Good Friday

Located beside government buildings on Kildare Street, the National Museum of Archaeology is home to a fascinating collection of artefacts from Ireland and all over the world.

Don’t miss: The gilt and painted cartonnage case of the mummy Tentdinebu in the Ancient Egypt room.

8. Famine Memorial

Location: Custom House Quay, Dublin 1

Opening Hours: The memorial is available for viewing 24/7

The haunting sculptures are the work of Dublin sculptor Rowan Gillespie and are a commemorative work dedicated to those forced to emigrate during the Great Famine (1845-1852).

The memorial is located at a historically important place on Custom House Quay, where one of the first Famine Ship voyages departed in 1846.

Don’t miss: The nearby Jeanie Johnston tall ship: a replica of the original ship, which carried emigrants to America during the Famine.

9. National Botanic Gardens

Location: Glasnevin, Dublin 9

Opening Hours: Winter (last Sunday of October to first Sunday in March): Monday – Friday 9am – 4:30pm Summer (first Sunday of March to last Sunday of October): Monday to Friday 9am – 5pm Saturday, Sunday and Public Holidays: 10am – 6pm

While entry to the gardens is free, parking is not but you can get there by Dublin Bus (numbers 4 and 9 depart from O’Connell Street and stop near the Gardens).

The Gardens are home to over 15,000 different plant species, as well as several beautiful glasshouses, the most famous of which is the Palm House (pictured), built in 1862.

Don’t miss: The Geology of Ireland rockery, displaying rock samples from all over the island of Ireland.

10. James Joyce Ulysses Walk

Location: Various points around Dublin City Centre (see details below)

Opening Hours: All plaques are located on public footpaths and are therefore available 24/7

Ulysses, Joyce’s most famous work, tells the story of one day in the life of Leopold Bloom and his walk around Dublin. In 1988, 14 plaques were unveiled in Dublin’s city centre, marking points along Bloom’s walk.

At present, 12 of the original 14 plaques are in place (two having been removed due to ongoing construction work). Follow Bloom’s footsteps and see Dublin through his eyes it’s a great way to walk around the city.

Here are the locations of the plaques:

Plaque 1: N 53° 20.902 W 006° 15.627 (Middle Abbey Street)

Plaque 2: N 53° 20.880 W 006° 15.587 (Lower O’Connell Street)

Plaque 3: N 53° 20.845 W 006° 15.571 (O’Connell Bridge)

Plaque 4: N 53° 20.805 W 006° 15.560 (Aston Quay)

Plaque 5 & 6: Missing

Plaque 7: N 53° 20.586 W 006° 15.560 (Grafton Street)

Plaque 8: N 53° 20.569 W 006° 15.566 (Grafton Street)

Plaque 9: N 53° 20.539 W 006° 15.578 (Grafton Street)

Plaque 10: N 53° 20.513 W 006° 15.559 (Duke Street)

Plaque 11: N 53° 20.511 W 006° 15.539 (Duke Street)

Plaque 12: N 53° 20.505 W 006° 15.492 (Duke Street)

Plaque 13: N 53° 20.471 W 006° 15.408 (Molesworth Street)

Plaque 14: N 53° 20.435 W 006° 15.317 (Kildare Street)

Don’t miss: The statue of Joyce on North Earl Street, before you start the walk and his bust in St. Stephen’s Green when you’re finished.


Quotes about relationships ending and moving on

The pharaohs were rulers of Ancient Egypt dating from the unification of Upper and Lower. Feb Sometimes you have to go back into the past to understand the present. While we are all riveted to the images coming out of Egypt , there is a . The first true pharaoh of Egypt was Narmer (sometimes called Menes), who united Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. Jul This is controversial, and Egyptian governments have been hesitant to allow geneticists to test remains from. Do current Egyptians descend from pharaohs ? Who is the first and the last Egyptian pharaoh emperor with pure.

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Sometimes, seals bore the name of the current pharaoh as a declaration of . Sep For the first time, a team of scientists and archaeologists has been able to set a robust timeline for the first eight dynastic rulers of Egypt. Jun This is the first successful DNA sequencing on ancient Egyptian mummies, ever. They found that the ancient Egyptians were most closely related to the. Education must move beyond the current focus on training to .


The Geocaching Junkie

Dublin may be ranked 18th in the Top 20 Most Expensive Cities in Europe, but there are plenty of attractions that will give you a real flavour of the city without costing a thing.

1. Natural History Museum

Location: Merrion Street, Dublin 2

Opening Hours: Tuesday – Saturday, 10am – 5pm Sunday, 2pm – 5pm. Closed Mondays, Christmas Day & Good Friday

Affectionately known as the ‘Dead Zoo’, the Natural History Museum located on Merrion Street is a great day out for kids and adults alike. The museum features cabinet-style exhibitions of animals native to Ireland, as well as more exotic mammals.

Don’t miss: The statue of Oscar Wilde in nearby Merrion Square. The playwright lived at 1, Merrion Square as a child.

2. National Gallery

Location: Merrion Square West, Dublin 2

Opening Hours: Monday – Saturday, 9:15am – 5:30pm Thursday, 9:15am – 8:30pm Sunday, 11am – 5:30pm

Just around the corner on Merrion Square West, is the National Gallery of Ireland, which houses paintings by some of the greats including Van Gogh, Monet, Carvaggio and Rembrandt.

The Gallery also has many excellent temporary exhibitions – check out theirwebsite to see what’s on when you visit.

Don’t miss: The Yeats Collection, comprising of works from Jack B. Yeats as well as various material related to his family most notably his father, John Butler Yeats.

3. Collins Barracks Museum

Location: Benburb Street, Dublin 7

Opening Hours: Tuesday – Saturday, 10am – 5pm Sunday, 2pm – 5pm. Closed Mondays, Christmas Day & Good Friday

Collins Barracks, located on Arbour Hill, has been home to the National Museum of Decorative Arts & History since 1997. The barracks housed both the British and Irish Armies over three centuries, making it the oldest continuously used example in the world.

Ireland has a rich and complex history and there is no better place to learn about it than at Collins Barracks.

Don’t miss: Croppy Acres near the River Liffey – the site of a mass grave where many rebels who fought in the Rebellion of 1798 were buried.

4. War Memorial Gardens

Location: Islandbridge, Dublin 8

Opening Hours: The gardens open at 8am Monday – Friday and 10am Saturday and Sunday. Closing times are according to daylight hours.

The Gardens are dedicated to the memory of the 49,400 Irish soldiers killed during World War I. The names of the soldiers are transcribed in manuscripts kept in the impressive granite bookrooms (access to the bookrooms is by appointment only).

A great alternative to the nearby Phoenix Park, you can often see rowers practicing on the River Liffey, which runs adjacent to the Gardens.

Don’t miss: The sunken rose gardens when they are in full bloom from spring to autumn.

5. Chester Beatty Library

Location: Dublin Castle, Dublin 2

Opening Hours: 1st May – 30th September: Monday – Friday, 10am – 5pm 1 October – 30 April: Tuesday – Friday, 10am – 5pm Saturday (year round): 11 am – 5pm Sunday (year round): 1pm – 5pm Closed: Good Friday, 24th – 26th December, 1st January and Monday public holidays.

The library houses the vast collections of Sir Alfred Chester Beatty, bequeathed to the State upon his death in 1968. Chester Beatty accumulated a stunning treasury of manuscripts, miniature paintings, drawings, rare books, prints and decorative arts from all over the world.

Particularly impressive is the selection of illustrated copies of religious texts, including the Qur’an and the Bible.

Don’t miss: The Record Tower nearby in the Castle grounds, which functioned as a prison in the 16th Century.

6. Diving Bell Museum

Location: Sir John Rogerson’s Quay, Dublin 2

Opening Hours: Access to the museum is available 24/7

Dublin’s newest (and smallest) museum, the 140-year-old Dublin Port Diving Bell was in use for almost 90 years as part of the construction of the city’s quay walls.

In late 2015, it was restored and elevated on a metal structure, where you can pass underneath and read about its historical significance while walking over a water feature.

Don’t miss: The view of the iconic Convention Centre and the Samuel Beckett Bridge from here.

7. Archaeology Museum

Location: Kildare Street, Dublin 2

Opening Hours: Tuesday – Saturday, 10am – 5pm Sunday, 2pm – 5pm. Closed Mondays, Christmas Day & Good Friday

Located beside government buildings on Kildare Street, the National Museum of Archaeology is home to a fascinating collection of artefacts from Ireland and all over the world.

Don’t miss: The gilt and painted cartonnage case of the mummy Tentdinebu in the Ancient Egypt room.

8. Famine Memorial

Location: Custom House Quay, Dublin 1

Opening Hours: The memorial is available for viewing 24/7

The haunting sculptures are the work of Dublin sculptor Rowan Gillespie and are a commemorative work dedicated to those forced to emigrate during the Great Famine (1845-1852).

The memorial is located at a historically important place on Custom House Quay, where one of the first Famine Ship voyages departed in 1846.

Don’t miss: The nearby Jeanie Johnston tall ship: a replica of the original ship, which carried emigrants to America during the Famine.

9. National Botanic Gardens

Location: Glasnevin, Dublin 9

Opening Hours: Winter (last Sunday of October to first Sunday in March): Monday – Friday 9am – 4:30pm Summer (first Sunday of March to last Sunday of October): Monday to Friday 9am – 5pm Saturday, Sunday and Public Holidays: 10am – 6pm

While entry to the gardens is free, parking is not but you can get there by Dublin Bus (numbers 4 and 9 depart from O’Connell Street and stop near the Gardens).

The Gardens are home to over 15,000 different plant species, as well as several beautiful glasshouses, the most famous of which is the Palm House (pictured), built in 1862.

Don’t miss: The Geology of Ireland rockery, displaying rock samples from all over the island of Ireland.

10. James Joyce Ulysses Walk

Location: Various points around Dublin City Centre (see details below)

Opening Hours: All plaques are located on public footpaths and are therefore available 24/7

Ulysses, Joyce’s most famous work, tells the story of one day in the life of Leopold Bloom and his walk around Dublin. In 1988, 14 plaques were unveiled in Dublin’s city centre, marking points along Bloom’s walk.

At present, 12 of the original 14 plaques are in place (two having been removed due to ongoing construction work). Follow Bloom’s footsteps and see Dublin through his eyes it’s a great way to walk around the city.

Here are the locations of the plaques:

Plaque 1: N 53° 20.902 W 006° 15.627 (Middle Abbey Street)

Plaque 2: N 53° 20.880 W 006° 15.587 (Lower O’Connell Street)

Plaque 3: N 53° 20.845 W 006° 15.571 (O’Connell Bridge)

Plaque 4: N 53° 20.805 W 006° 15.560 (Aston Quay)

Plaque 5 & 6: Missing

Plaque 7: N 53° 20.586 W 006° 15.560 (Grafton Street)

Plaque 8: N 53° 20.569 W 006° 15.566 (Grafton Street)

Plaque 9: N 53° 20.539 W 006° 15.578 (Grafton Street)

Plaque 10: N 53° 20.513 W 006° 15.559 (Duke Street)

Plaque 11: N 53° 20.511 W 006° 15.539 (Duke Street)

Plaque 12: N 53° 20.505 W 006° 15.492 (Duke Street)

Plaque 13: N 53° 20.471 W 006° 15.408 (Molesworth Street)

Plaque 14: N 53° 20.435 W 006° 15.317 (Kildare Street)

Don’t miss: The statue of Joyce on North Earl Street, before you start the walk and his bust in St. Stephen’s Green when you’re finished.


Niebla y luz

17 cm shorter on average than their Bantu neighbors and among the shortest populations globally. Our multifaceted approach identified several genomic regions that may have been targets of natural selection and so may harbor variants underlying the unique anatomy and physiology of Western African Pygmies. One region of chromosome three, in particular, harbors strong signals of natural selection, population differentiation, and association with height. This region also contains a significant association with height in Europeans as well as a candidate gene known to regulate growth hormone signaling.

Iranian, Foreign Archaeologists Return to Ancient Site in Southern Iran

A group of archaeological experts from Italy will conduct a series of studies in the ancient city of Estakhr, Director of the Iranian Center for Archaeological Research (ICAR) Mahmoud Mir-Eskandari said.

"The Italian group will use advanced equipments giving Iranian experts the chance to become acquainted with high-tech tools used in this field," he added.

The joint team will excavate the city for 45 days seeking probable signs of early mosques and ancient ruins, said Mir-Eskandari.

In an earlier research program, a team of Iranian and Italian experts led by Professor Pierfrancesco Callieri of the University of Bologna studied some parts of the area in 2008.

The new team is also planning to study the Sassanid city of Bishpur and several other cities in Fars province, Mir-Eskandari noted.

Estakhr is an ancient city located five kilometers north of Persepolis which was a prosperous city during the Achaemenid era.

Bienes arqueológicos en la provincia de Albacete

¿Y qué pasa con la investigación? (Cádiz)

Beatriz Estévez / Cádiz
Estos días se está hablando mucho de las universidades públicas españolas con motivo de las medidas de ajuste que ha aprobado el Gobierno de Mariano Rajoy. El real decreto ley ya publicado, relativo al aumento de tasas de matrícula universitaria, al régimen de dedicación del profesorado y al procedimiento de creación, modificación y supresión de centros académicos y títulos de enseñanzas superiores está siendo debatido por distintos sectores de la enseñanza superior, así como por progenitores y estudiantes.

Se ha recortado un 62,5% del presupuesto para estas instituciones académicas y un 11,6% las becas a estudiantes. Se ha dado luz verde a la subida de los precios de las tasas de matriculación, por lo que cada alumno podrá pagar hasta 540 euros más por la primera matrícula universitaria, a razón de 60 euros al mes. Y también se ha establecido el incremento en el resto de las tasas, que se refieren a las segundas, terceras y cuartas matrículas en un 40%, 75% y 100% de subida respectivamente. Además, la Conferencia de Rectores de Universidades Españolas ha resaltado que el real decreto ley afecta de lleno al profesorado, porque "ven reducidas sus condiciones laborales y modificado unilateralmente el régimen de dedicación".

Opiniones, quejas, advertencias, reflexiones. pero entre tantas palabras suena poco una: investigación. Apenas se está hablando de cómo perjudican todos estos cambios -y la falta de recursos económicos - en la labor investigadora que se desarrolla en las universidades públicas españolas.

Es por ello que Diario de Cádiz ha preguntado sobre este asunto a responsables de varios proyectos de investigación de la Universidad de Cádiz, y lo primero que sale a flote es que el Gobierno central ha suprimido la convocatoria de proyectos de la AECID-Agencia Española de Cooperación y Desarrollo, y la Junta de Andalucía ha parado la ayuda a los grupos de investigación del Plan Andaluz de Investigación (Grupos PAI).

La eliminación de los proyectos de la AECID repercute directamente en la línea de investigación de varios grupos de la UCA. Entre ellos, el que dirige el catedrático de Prehistoria José Ramos, El Círculo del Estrecho, Estudio Arqueológico y Arqueométrico de las Sociedades desde la Prehistoria a la Antigüedad Tardía. A este equipo le afecta principalmente en la línea de colaboración que mantiene con la Universidad Abdelmalek Essaâdi y el Museo Tetuán, en trabajos de estudio de las sociedades prehistóricas y de la Arqueología de la región histórica del Estrecho de Gibraltar. Esto, explica Ramos, representa una situación "insostenible" para "jóvenes doctores que aspiran a poder consolidar su formación en becas I+D en estancias en el extranjero". "Tenemos los contactos en varias universidades, pero falta la convocatoria", añade.

Y con respecto a la paralización de ayuda de la Administración andaluza, el investigador augura que ello generará un "estancamiento de la actividad cotidiana, actualmente en condiciones muy duras".

José Ramos, que se define como un veterano investigador, lamenta estar viviendo "una situación que nos retrotrae a momentos de hace más de 20 años. En España se estaba consiguiendo una normalidad científica e investigadora, con reconocimiento internacional, en algunas áreas, en concreto en mi campo de Arqueología Prehistórica. Con este panorama, si no hay dinero para investigar, si los jóvenes investigadores no pueden obtener becas y continuar su formación, si los grupos no tienen financiación ni para enviar intercambios de publicaciones, nos podemos quedar estancados".

Puntualiza que desde su juventud estaba acostumbrado, al igual que otros muchos compañeros, a la máxima: la escasez agudiza el ingenio, "pero creo que estamos llegando a una situación muy frustrante y donde no se atisba una esperanza a medio plazo. Los jóvenes investigadores - agrega - deben tener esperanzas, que con su esfuerzo se pueden doctorar, y tras salidas al extranjero, tener la ilusión de volver a su país a aplicar los conocimientos adquiridos. Pero si la situación sigue así, tendremos una fuga de cerebros lamentable para un país como España, donde todavía tenemos mucho que aprender".
El catedrático de Universidad responsable del grupo Estructura y Dinámica de Ecosistemas Acuáticos, Juan José Vergara, señala que no hay una única realidad sobre este asunto, sino varias, y marcadas éstas por la circunstancia puntual de cada equipo de investigación. El que él lidera, por ejemplo, comenzó el pasado mes de enero (aunque concedido meses atrás) un proyecto de tres años que, ante los recortes, "tendrá más difícil conseguir la financiación adecuada en proyectos del Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, al haber menos recursos". Y a estos científicos también les afecta el cierre de la línea de subvenciones de la AECID en proyectos de cooperación científica, "pues manteníamos una fructífera relación con la Universidad de Costa Rica, y tenemos a dos estudiantes de Doctorado en nuestro grupo comenzando lo que iba a ser su tesis doctoral. Pero al cortarse la vía de financiación, ahora mismo el futuro de estos doctorandos es todo un interrogante, pues hay fondos para apenas un año, y no se pueden prorrogar por esta vía".

Juan Antonio Micó, responsable del grupo de Investigación y Desarrollo en Neuropsicofarmacología de la UCA, aborda este asunto separando "la situación económica de la UCA en cuanto a funcionamiento general, que viene provocada por un retraso en la dotación presupuestaria que le corresponde por parte de la Junta de Andalucía, de la dotación por proyectos de investigación. Son capítulos diferentes", defiende. Eso sí, aclara que la separación no es total. Existe, por ejemplo, según explica, una relación directa entre el trabajo que realiza el PAS en tareas de apoyo a la investigación y el que un grupo determinado se quede sin fondos para investigación. "Si la plantilla se reduce por motivos de la situación económica que afecta al capítulo de personal de la UCA, el problema afectará muy probablemente a la actividad investigadora del PDI".
Asimismo, el profesor de la Facultad de Medicina comenta que hay que diferenciar también entre financiación pública proveniente de fondos estatales, incluidos los europeos, de los provenientes de fondos autonómicos, o los provenientes de fondos privados de empresas o fundaciones: "Las empresas y fundaciones, con mayor o menor intensidad, vienen manteniendo sus compromisos con la universidad en forma de contratos de transferencia universidad-empresa. Otra cosas son los fondos estatales o autonómicos. Los fondos estatales han sufrido un recorte considerable, pero aún no estamos padeciendo las consecuencias, ya que vivimos de fondos de investigación anteriores, los proyectos son a 3-4 años pero no hay ninguna duda de que lo vamos a sufrir en meses venideros cuando tengan que ser dotados los nuevos proyectos que se han solicitado o se solicitaran en breve. A nivel autonómico, sin embargo, los retrasos de la Junta de Andalucía en los compromisos de financiación de los grupos de investigación sí que están sufriendo retrasos que están afectando ya negativamente a la investigación", afirma.

Por otro lado, manifiesta que la contratación de investigadores, a raíz de los nuevos decretos estatales y las normas emanadas de la Universidad, "es más complicada en cuanto que requieren una mayor dotación económica por parte de los grupos". "Esto nos ha cogido de sorpresa y sin fondos económicos para reaccionar y, por tanto, no hemos podido renovar muchos contratos de investigación. Muchos de estos jóvenes no han podido seguir sus investigaciones", comparte. Y concluye con la siguiente reflexión: "Creo que se podría haber hecho un esfuerzo en comprender que una cosa son los contratos de investigación para realizar un trabajo de transferencia para una empresa desde la universidad, y otra muy diferente un contrato de apoyo a la investigación para que un joven pueda realizar su tesis doctoral".

El responsable del grupo de Diseño de Circuitos Microelectrónico de la Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Ángel Quirós, asegura que la situación de su equipo no ha cambiado de forma significativa, y el día a día lo desarrollan con normalidad. No obstante, reconoce que existen "grandes dudas" sobre las posibilidades de obtener financiación pública de las convocatorias pendientes de resolución, "pero esto es algo que no es nuevo", apostilla.

La también investigadora de la UCA Pilar Azcárate, responsable del grupo Desarrollo Profesional del Docente, resalta que las ayudas correspondientes al año 2011 no han sido resueltas, "y parece ser que van a quedar en suspenso, pero aún no hay nada seguro. Nuestro grupo funciona con la financiación de años anteriores y no hemos necesitado, por ahora, mayor financiación".

Más contundente en su respuesta se muestra el director del departamento de Filología de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras y responsable del grupo de Estudios del Siglo XVIII, Alberto Romero Ferrer. Expone que la falta de recursos económicos "se está notando bastante, muy especialmente a la hora de hacer visible la investigación, como en congresos y publicaciones, pues una parte importante de los recursos se suelen destinar a estas facetas".

El profesor aboga por realizar "cambios" en la "gestión de la investigación", y recalca que ésta debe fundamentarse en "criterios objetivos", algo que actualmente no sucede. O al menos no siempre, según sus palabras. Asimismo, otro asunto importante a tratar es, según el filólogo, la concesión de proyectos en los diferentes programas, "pues se observan concesiones muy llamativas, que no tienen ningún tipo de justificación académica, y sí, en cambio, una justificación de reparto entre amigos. Es una vergüenza", concluye el investigador.


6.17.10: Chronicles of Sir Thomas Leaf: WPP: Day 13 – Last day of Excavations, The Collections, Newquay Beach

It was depressing that today would be my last day of excavations at Saveok. I really wish I could have afforded and budgeted more time/funds to stay here longer. I had my last divine breakfast with Vanda and Paul … and as we were chatting to came to the subject of tall sailing ships. Turns out Vanda knows a guy who has a historic sailing ship that he doesn’t want to sell but is only using it for running wine between France and England. Wouldn’t it be cool if we could work out a deal to run Pirate Relief with his ship as a tax write-off for him? One can dream. I really enjoyed my time with Vanda and Paul … couldn’t recommend their Bed and Breakfast more. Vanda offered to drive me to the bus stop after the field day so left my bags in the sun room and tromped off across the fields to the site. Oh how I to miss this place. :: sigh :: I have a strong calling that I’m meant to work here … further … if not as a purpose/request in life. Who knows what the future will bring. Being an American I’m limited and the cost of travels in Europe certainly are twice the cost as it is home. :: sigh :: So the final day of excavating.

Jacqui pulled out the artifact collection and showed me the amazing finds. This is such a sacred place. This site is such an amazing piece of history for the Other People, it’s not funny. What Jacqui is uncovering and finding is important pieces in the history of magic and folklore in the U.K. This place sends shivers of excitement up and down my spine – its sooo ethereal. I wish I could find funding or an opportunity to apprentice with Jacqui. An amazing scholar with so much to share. If only I lived in the UK …

We resumed excavations on the Feather pits where we believe we’ve uncovered from the clay caps upwards of three more offering pits. Jacqui also chose some natural colored clays to send with me that I could use at the Three Wishes Faerie Festival to make some tribal body paints … if I find somewhere to get linseed oil before hitting the festival. Found some interesting pottery, ceramics, and metal items in the pit … but the clock struck four and it was time to unfortunately head off on to the next leg of my journey. I will miss Saveok dearly. I wandered back to the Bed and Breakfast where Vanda was awaiting me to shuttle me to the bus stop. I’ll miss them dearly as well. I caught the bus to Truro and hit the rail station to await my train to Par.

Newquay, Cornwall, Britain
From Par I had to change trains to backtrack to Newquay. Apparently doing this train route is 5 minutes shorter than the bus route – which would have been a straight run with no stops. A bit of a layover. I did meet a father and daughter from Vancouver who were pretty intriguing. They had been cycling around Cornwall. I wish I could do that. Someday perhaps. The daughter recently moved to London from Vancouver. Onwards to Newquay – I got off the train to find a very touristy, party beach city. Surf-central. The map made the St. Christopher’s Inn (Surfer Hostel) look not far away – I suppose it would have been closer by foot if I hadn’t walked past it for a 1/2 mile with heavy backpacks and bags. I found it – it was above the Belushi’s bar. The staff was nice but very pirate-sque. Very party central. They gave me a full dorm room all to myself with a beautiful view of the beach. I could have been completely satisfied with just hanging in the room all night with that view. I decided though this would be my only chance to see Newquay. So I ventured out. The bar was too rowdy, 98% male and testosterone-pumped as they were watching the World Cup. Oh how I abhor sports. I went for some fish n’ chips for din-din and wandered down to the beach and piers. Water way too freezing cold for a swim which was very disappointing as it was so welcoming to the eyes. I contemplated clubbing, but settled back into the room to some cider n’ wifi … needed some rest and relaxation before Three Wishes Faerie Fest tomorrow and meeting Faerie Zoe at the Train Station on the Bodmin Moor …


Guide to the National Museum of Ireland Archaeology

3 Contents Introduction 4 The Building and its Collections 5 The Exhibitions 8 Prehistoric Ireland 8 Ór Ireland's Gold 15 The Treasury 21 Viking Ireland 31 Medieval Ireland Ancient Egypt 43 Ceramics and Glass from Ancient Cyprus 2500 B.C. A.D Kingship & Sacrifice 48 Guide to the National Museum of Ireland Archaeology National Museum of Ireland, Dublin, 2007 ISBN: Text: Eamonn P. Kelly. With thanks to Raghnall Ó Floinn, Mary Cahill, Andy Halpin, Maeve Sikora, Stephen Quirke and John Taylor Photography: Valerie Dowling, Noreen O'Callaghan and John Searle All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, broadcast or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission in writing from the publishers. 2 3

4 Introduction The Building and its Collections The National Museum of Ireland was founded under the Dublin Science and Art Museum Act of Previously, the museum s collections had been divided between Leinster House, originally the headquarters of the Royal Dublin Society, and the Natural History Museum in Merrion Street, built as an extension to Leinster House in Under the Act, the government purchased the museum buildings and collections. To provide storage and display space for the Leinster House collections, the government quickly implemented plans to construct a new, custom-built museum on Kildare Street and on 29th August 1890, the new museum opened its doors to the public. View across the gallery of the centre court The Museum of Archaeology is home to the Irish Antiquities Division of the National Museum of Ireland which is the national repository for all archaeological objects found in Ireland. It holds in trust for the nation and the world a series of outstanding archaeological collections spanning millennia of Irish history and also holds extensive collections of non-irish antiquities. The museum houses artefacts ranging in date from 7000 B.C. to the late medieval period and beyond. On display are prehistoric gold artefacts, metalwork from the Celtic Iron Age, Viking artefacts and medieval ecclesiastical objects and jewellery, as well as rich collections of ancient Egyptian and Cypriot material. The building, designed by Cork architects Thomas Newenham Deane and his son Thomas Manly Deane, is an architectural landmark. It is built in the Victorian Palladian style and has been compared with the Altes Museum in Berlin, designed by Karl Schinkel in the 1820s. Neo-classical influences can be seen in the colonnaded entrance and the domed rotunda, which rises to a height of 20 metres and which is modelled on the Pantheon in Rome. Within the rotunda, classical columns made of marble quarried in Counties Cork, Kilkenny, Galway, Limerick and Armagh mirror the entrance. In the great centre court, a balcony is supported by rows of slender cast-iron columns with elaborate capitals and with bases decorated with groups of cherubs. On the balcony, further rows of plain columns and attractive openwork spandrels support the roof. 4 5

5 Wooden door panel carved by Carlo Cambi of Siena, Italy. Mosiac floor in the rotunda depicting the signs of the zodiac. The interior is decorated richly with motifs that recall the civilisations of ancient Greece and Rome. Splendid mosaic floors depict scenes from classical mythology, among which the zodiac design in the rotunda is especially popular with visitors. Particularly lavish are the majolica fireplaces and door surrounds manufactured by Burmantofts Pottery of Leeds, England, and the richly carved wooden doors by William Milligan of Dublin and Carlo Cambi of Siena, Italy. The building is faced with Leinster granite, while sandstone from Mount Charles, County Donegal is used in the entrance colonnade, on the upper storey and to highlight doors and windows. Dublin sculptor Thomas Farrell was commissioned to produce the sculptural detail on the facade and roof in the form of statuary groups, single figures and urns, but the work was curtailed for reasons of cost. In recent years, the exterior stonework, some of the mosaic floors and a number of the majolica door and fireplace surrounds have been restored. Based on core collections assembled in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by the Royal Dublin Society and the Royal Irish Academy, the archaeological collections have been augmented considerably over the last hundred years. The National Museum is responsible for the portable archaeological heritage of Ireland, and legislation enacted over the years has developed the role of the museum in relation to all aspects of Irish archaeology, including excavation, conservation, underwater archaeology and export control. The museum s role in relation to local museums has also grown considerably. The collection and its archive constitute a national database of archaeological information that is an indispensable resource for the study of Irish civilisation. 6 7


Watch the video: Photos of miracles: These bodies do not destroy themselves after death - some are 600 years old


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