Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens

Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens



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The Temple of Olympian Zeus

The building of the Temple of Olympian Zeus actually began in the 6th Century by Peisistratos but work was stopped either because of a lack of money or because Pisistratus's son, Hippias, was overthrown in 510 BC. The temple was not finished until the Emperor Hadrian completed in 131 AD, seven hundred years later. There were other attempts to continue the building. The Classical Greeks (487-379)left it unfinished because they believed it was too big and symbolized the arrogance of people who believed they were equal to the Gods. During the Third Century when the Macedonians ruled Athens work was begun again by Antiochus the IV of Syria who wanted to build the world's largest temple and hired the Roman architect Cossotius to complete the job, but this ended when Antiochus died. In 86 BC, during Roman rule the general Sulla took two columns from the unfinished temple to Rome for the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill which influenced the development of the Corinthian style in Rome.

Originally there were 104 Corinthian columns of which only 15 remain standing. One of the columns actually blew down in a storm in 1852. Hadrian had erected a giant gold and ivory status of Zeus inside the temple with an equally large one of himself next to it. Nothing remains of these statues. It is not known when the temple of Zeus was destroyed but it probably came down in an earthquake during the mediaeval period. Like other ancient buildings much of it was taken away for building materials. In the early 1800s a stylite (a group of ascetics who spent long periods sitting or standing on top of pillars or columns. The word comes from the Greek stylos for column.) built his dwelling on top of one of the columns of the temple and it can be seen in early paintings and drawings.

Nearby is the Arch of Hadrian which was erected in 132 AD as a gate between the ancient city and the Roman city of Athens.


Angelokastro is a Byzantine castle on the island of Corfu. It is located at the top of the highest peak of the island"s shoreline in the northwest coast near Palaiokastritsa and built on particularly precipitous and rocky terrain. It stands 305 m on a steep cliff above the sea and surveys the City of Corfu and the mountains of mainland Greece to the southeast and a wide area of Corfu toward the northeast and northwest.

Angelokastro is one of the most important fortified complexes of Corfu. It was an acropolis which surveyed the region all the way to the southern Adriatic and presented a formidable strategic vantage point to the occupant of the castle.

Angelokastro formed a defensive triangle with the castles of Gardiki and Kassiopi, which covered Corfu"s defences to the south, northwest and northeast.

The castle never fell, despite frequent sieges and attempts at conquering it through the centuries, and played a decisive role in defending the island against pirate incursions and during three sieges of Corfu by the Ottomans, significantly contributing to their defeat.

During invasions it helped shelter the local peasant population. The villagers also fought against the invaders playing an active role in the defence of the castle.

The exact period of the building of the castle is not known, but it has often been attributed to the reigns of Michael I Komnenos and his son Michael II Komnenos. The first documentary evidence for the fortress dates to 1272, when Giordano di San Felice took possession of it for Charles of Anjou, who had seized Corfu from Manfred, King of Sicily in 1267.

From 1387 to the end of the 16th century, Angelokastro was the official capital of Corfu and the seat of the Provveditore Generale del Levante, governor of the Ionian islands and commander of the Venetian fleet, which was stationed in Corfu.

The governor of the castle (the castellan) was normally appointed by the City council of Corfu and was chosen amongst the noblemen of the island.

Angelokastro is considered one of the most imposing architectural remains in the Ionian Islands.


Temple of Zeus at Olympia

The Temple of Zeus is a Doric temple in the sanctuary at Olympia, Greece. Olympia was the site of the ancient Olympic Games. The temple is a ruin. It was dedicated to Zeus, the principal god of the Ancient Greeks. This temple was the most important and most impressive structure at Olympia.

The temple was built between 470 BC and 456 BC. Local limestone was the chief material used. The roof tiles, the gargoyles, and the sculptures were made of marble. The temple measured 64.12 meters by 27.66 meters. It was 20.25 meters high. The temple had six columns at the ends and thirteen columns along both sides. The height of each column was 10.45 meters.

A ramp at the eastern end led to the prodomos. The table holding the Olympic wreaths stood to the right. The crowning of the victors took place on the last day at this spot.

The sculptures of the east pediment depicted the story of Pelops and Hippodameia. This story is about the first chariot races. The sculptures of the west pediment depicted the story of the Centaurs and the Lapiths. This story is about the contest between barbarity and civilization. There were six metopes over the front porch and six over the back porch. They depicted the Labors of Heracles.

The temple once contained Phidias' Statue of Zeus, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The fate of the statue is unknown. It may have been taken to Constantinople where it was probably destroyed in the fire of 475 AD. Or, it may have been destroyed in the fire at Olympia in 426 AD. Phidias' workshop was discovered at Olympia in 1954.

Statue bases cover the area around the temple. These bases held statues of gods, heroes, and Olympic victors. They were dedicated by individuals and cities. The sacred olive from which the Olympic wreaths were cut stood on the west side of the temple. Emperor Theodosius II ordered the temple burned to the ground in 426 AD. Earthquakes destroyed it in 522 AD and in 551.


Temple of Zeus

Temple of Zeus
Discover interesting facts and information about the magnificent Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Read about when and where the temple was made, its function and a full description of the layout and design of the Temple of Zeus. Read about the materials used to create the temple and the magnificent decorations that adorned the temple.

Temple of Zeus
Gain an appreciation of the structure that housed the colossal Statue of Zeus, one of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World that was made of , ivory, gold and precious stones. Additional, intriguing information about all of the ancient gods and goddesses and the mythical creatures and monsters that feature in their legends are also available via about the Temple of Zeus:

The Temple of Zeus at Olympia
The Temple of Zeus at Olympia was housed in the sanctuary of Zeus, the king of all the Olympian gods. The Temple of Zeus at Olympia measured 64 meter (210 foot) long and was designed by the architect Libon and was built around 450 BC. It was designed to honor Zeus and was located in the city of Olympia. In ancient times the city of Olympia was a place of the cult of Zeus and contained numerous treasures, baths, temples, monuments, altars, theaters, and beautiful statues and Olympia was where the ancient Greek Olympic games were held - refer to Zeus at Olympia..

Artist's impression of Zeus of Temple at Olympia

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia
The Colossal Statue of Zeus was housed in the Temple of Zeus in the city of Olympia in the west of Greece. The statue measured over 42 ft high and 21 feet wide and it stood in the temple for over 800 years. The following pictures are an artists impression of what the amazing statue depicting the ancient Greek god Zeus might have looked like. Impressions were gained from first-hand descriptions of the statue and the images engraved on coins used in ancient Greece.

Pictures of the massive statue housed in the Temple of Zeus

The following picture enables us to gain a better idea of the size of the Temple that housed the massive statue of Zeus. In his right hand he holds a life-sized image of Nike (the goddess of Victory). The statue alone was the size of a modern four-story building.

Short Facts about the Temple of Zeus
Discover interesting information and short facts about the Temple of Zeus, the king of the gods. The fun facts about the Temple of Zeus at Olympia for kids provides a list detailing fascinating information to increase your knowledge about the Temple of Zeus and the ancient Greeks.

Temple of Zeus at Olympia

  • The Proanos: The entrance room called the proanos, the inner area leading from the portico. The proanos was equipped with two bronze doors that opened to the outside
  • The Cella or Naos: The cella, also called the Naos, was the inner part of a temple, the main room at the centre of the building which contained the colossal statue of Zeus
  • The Opithodomos: The third room was called the opithodomos which had little decoration, but was lined with a stone bench to provide a place for the public to convene after visiting the temple. It was open at the end of the room which served as the exit
  • 13 large Doric columns supported the roof along the long sides of the temple
  • 6 Doric columns supported the shorter front and rear ends of the temple
  • The pillars were tapered - narrower at the top than the bottom
  • The pillars featured 20 fluted grooves
  • The capitals (tops) of the pillars were simple unlike the later Ionic and Corinthian columns

The Pediment: A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of the triangular section found above the horizontal structure (entablature), supported by columns

The pediments were filled with a frieze containing sculptures and referred to as the East Pediment, which was the entrance to the temple and the West pediment, which served as the exit. Details of the decorations in the pediments and friezes are detailed below.

The Metopes: Under the pediments, in the metopes, were sculptures depicting the 12 labors of Heracles (Hercules). There were six metopes on either end of the temple.

Materials used to build the Temple of Zeus at Olympia
The main structure of the building was built with a relatively poor quality limestone that was coated with a thin layer of stucco which give the temple an appearance of being made of marble. All the sculptural decoration on the temple was made of Parian marble. Parian marble was a fine-grained, semi-translucent, pure-white and entirely flawless marble that was quarried during the classical era on the Greek island of Paros in the Aegean Sea. The roof tiles were made of weather resistant Pentelic marble which came from the quarries of Mount Pentelikos near Athens. In ancient Greece, this marble was renowned for it's quality and beauty and used to build the Parthenon at Athens and the Elgin marbles. Inside the temple the floor in front of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia was paved, not with white, but with black tiles. In a circle round the black stone ran a raised rim of Parian marble that contained olive oil, which was used to clean the great statue of Zeus on a daily basis. Other materials used in the construction of the Temple of Zeus and its great statue were imported from India and Ethiopia.

  • The preparation of the great chariot race between Pelops and Oenomaus
  • In the centre was Zeus, holding his symbol of the thunderbolt
  • Oenomaus stands to the right of Zeus with his wife Sterope, his charioteer Myrtilus sitting before the four horses, and two grooms
  • Pelops to the left of Zeus with his wife Pelops, Hippodamia, and a like number of horses and attendants
  • At the narrow ends of the field were figures of the Alpheus (a River-God of Elis and Arkadia) and Kladeus, another River-God (the Kladeus river flows through Olympia and empties into the Alpheus)
  • Alpheus and Kladeus were depicted as graceful young men lying forward on the ground, and raising their heads to witness the contest

The Temple of Zeus at Olympia - West Pediment (exit)
The West Pediment, which was located above the exit to the temple contained a frieze of sculptures depicting:

  • The Battle between the Lapiths and the Centaurs
  • In the centre was Apollo
  • Pirithous, whose wife is just being carried off by the Centaurs
  • On each side of this figure a Centaur carrying off a maiden and the other a boy with Kaeneus and Theseus at each side, coming to the rescue
  • At the narrow ends of the field were lying figures of two beautiful mountain or river nymphs

Mosaics in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia
The Romans added mosaics to the floor of both the cello and the and the Proanos. The entrance room, the proanos, featured a floor mosaic composed of round pebbles which depicted a scene of the god Triton.

Sacrifices at the Temple of Zeus at Olympia
Sacrifices and many other rituals took place around the altar of Zeus which was situated outside, at the east front of the temple. Every sacrifice was accompanied by salt and also by a libation, which usually consisted of wine, the cup being always filled to the brim, indicating that the offering was made without stint. When sacrificing to the gods the cup containing the libation was filled with blood. The animals offered to the Olympian divinities, such as Zeus were white when practical, whilst those to the gods of the Underworld were black. The sacrifices to Zeus were often accompanied by music, whilst dances were performed round the altar, and sacred hymns were sung. These sacred hymns were generally composed in honour of Zeus, and contained an account of his famous actions, his clemency and benefits and the gifts he had bestowed on mankind. In conclusion, Zeus was invoked for a continuance of his favour, and when the service was ended a feast was held in his honor.


The endless construction

The design of this colossal temple began during the period of Peisistratos, in the sixth century B.C. For various reasons, it was not finished until nearly seven centuries later, in 132 AC, under the Roman Emperor Hadrian.

When the impressive temple was completed, the Emperor Hadrian commissioned a statue made of gold and marble in the shape of the Greek god Zeus and another of himself to place inside the temple.


Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens

The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens was constructed over three phases spanning approximately six-hundred fifty years. Construction initially began around 515 BCE under Peisistratid rule, but was abandoned upon their expulsion from Athens in 510 BCE. Antiochus Epiphanes IV of Syria began construction again in 175 BCE, but did not complete it. The Roman Emperor Hadrian ordered the completion of the Temple in 124 CE, and returned to Athens to see it finished in 131 CE.

There is evidence that the temple was consistently used to host a cult to Olympian Zeus throughout its history, even prior to its completion. The temple was initially damaged by Emperor Valerian (r. 253-260 CE) when part of the precinct wall was reused for later construction. The temple was largely destroyed two to three hundred years later. The fate of most the columns is unknown, but at least one was taken down by an Ottoman governor.

The site was excavated in 1883-1884 by Francis Penrose and in 1922 by Gabriel Welter the area around it was explored by the Greek Archaeological Society in excavations from 1886 to 1907 and again in the 1960s by Ioannes Travlos.


THE TEMPLE OF ZEUS AT OLYMPIA

The most markedly monumental building not only in the entire site but in the whole region of the Peloponnese, the Temple of Zeus stood at the centre of the sacred enclosure and is considered to set the golden rule for Doric temples.

The inhabitants of Eleia built it after their victory against the allied forces of the region of Triphylia, and dedicated it to Zeus. Construction works took almost fourteen years to complete (470-456 BC). The sheer size of the temple is easily understood, if one bears in mind that each of the thirteen columns which comprised its sides was 10.43 meters high and 2.25 metres in diameter. Outside the main structure, a hexagonal space paved with marble was where victorious athletes were crowned. Apart from the great aesthetic value of the building proper, however, one should not forget that it also housed on of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World: the chryselephantine statue of Zeus, crafted c. 430 BC by Pheidias, perhaps the most important sculptor of Greek antiquity.

The colossal statue believed to have exceeded 12 metres in height wasplaced at the far end of the temple Zeus was represented seated in a golden throne decorated with mythological scenes in relief. In his right hand, he held a sceptre the symbol of kingly power while in his left stood a winged Victory, the typical statue commemorating a victorious battle and indicating the lasting glory of the polis.The undraped parts of the statue were made of ivory, while the drape and accessories were of gold.

Time has not been kind to either the temple or the statue. The former was set on fire by order of the Emperor TheodosiusII in 426 AD, then easily succumbed to successive earthquakes in 551 and 552 AD the latter was sent to Constantinople after the abolition of the Games, where it was burnt in 475 AD.


History

Classical and Hellenistic periods

The temple is located 1640 feet south-east of the Acropolis, and about 700 m (2,300 feet) south of the center of Athens, Syntagma Square. Its foundations were laid on the site of an ancient outdoor sanctuary dedicated to Zeus. An earlier temple had stood there, constructed by the tyrant Pisistratus around 550 BC. The building was demolished after the death of Peisistratos and the construction of a colossal new Temple of Olympian Zeus was begun around 520 BC by his sons, Hippias and Hipparchos. They sought to surpass two famous contemporary temples, the Heraion of Samos and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Designed by the architects Antistates, Callaeschrus, Antimachides and Porinus, the Temple of Olympian Zeus was intended to be built of local limestone in the Corinthian style on a colossal platform measuring 41 m (134.5 feet) by 108 m (353.5 feet). It was to be flanked by a double colonnade of eight columns across the front and back and twenty-one on the flanks, surrounding the cella.

The work was abandoned when the tyranny was overthrown and Hippias was expelled in 510 BC. Only the platform and some elements of the columns had been completed by this point, and the temple remained in this state for 336 years. The temple was left unfinished during the years of Athenian democracy, apparently because the Greeks thought it is hubristic to build on such a scale. In the treatise Politics, Aristotle cited the temple as an example of how tyrannies engaged the populace in great works for the state (like a white elephant) and left them no time, energy or means to rebel.

It was not until 174 BC that the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who presented himself as the earthly embodiment of Zeus, revived the project and placed the Roman architect Decimus Cossutius in charge. The design was changed to have three rows of eight columns across the front and back of the temple and a double row of twenty on the flanks, for a total of 104 columns. The columns would stand 17 m (55.5 feet) high and 2 m (6.5 ft) in diameter. The building material was changed to the expensive but high-quality Pentelic marble and the order was changed from Doric to Corinthian, marking the first time that this order had been used on the exterior of a major temple. However, the project ground to a halt again in 164 BC with the death of Antiochus. The temple was still only half-finished by this stage.

Serious damage was inflicted on the partly built temple by Lucius Cornelius Sulla's sack of Athens in 86 BC. While looting the city, Sulla seized some of the incomplete columns and transported them back to Rome, where they were re-used in the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill. A half-hearted attempt was made to complete the temple during Augustus' reign as the first Roman emperor, but it was not until the accession of Hadrian in the 2nd century AD that the project was finally completed around 638 years after it had begun.

In 124-125 AD, when the strongly Philhellene Hadrian visited Athens, a massive building programme was begun that included the completion of the Temple of Olympian Zeus. A walled marble-paved precinct was constructed around the temple, making it a central focus of the ancient city. Cossutius's design was used with few changes and the temple was formally dedicated by Hadrian in 132, who took the title of "Panhellenios" in commemoration of the occasion. The temple and the surrounding precinct were adorned with numerous statues depicting Hadrian, the gods and personifications of the Roman provinces. A colossal statue of Hadrian was raised behind the building by the people of Athens in honour of the emperor's generosity. An equally colossal chryselephantine statue of Zeus occupied the cella of the temple. The statue's form of construction was unusual, as the use of chryselephantine was by this time regarded as archaic. It has been suggested that Hadrian was deliberately imitating Phidias' famous statue of Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon, seeking to draw attention to the temple and himself by doing so.

The Temple of Olympian Zeus was badly damaged during the Herulian sack of Athens in 267. It is unlikely to have been repaired, given the extent of the damage to the rest of the city. Assuming that it was not abandoned it would certainly have been closed down in 425 by the Christian emperor Theodosius II when he prohibited the worship of the old Roman and Greek gods. Material from the (presumably now ruined) building was incorporated into a basilica constructed nearby during the 5th or 6th century.

Medieval and Modern periods

Over the following centuries, the temple was systematically quarried to provide building materials and material for the houses and churches of medieval Athens. By the end of the Byzantine period, it had been almost totally destroyed when Ciriaco de' Pizzicolli (Cyriacus of Ancona) visited Athens in 1436 he found only 21 of the original 104 columns still standing. The fate of one of the columns is recorded by a Greek inscription on one of the surviving columns, which states that "on 27 April 1759 he pulled down the column". This refers to the Turkish governor of Athens, Tzisdarakis, who is recorded by a chronicler as having "destroyed one of Hadrian's columns with gunpowder" in order to re-use the marble to make plaster for the mosque that he was building in the Monastiraki district of the city. During the Ottoman period the temple was known to the Greeks as the Palace of Hadrian, while the Turks called it the Palace of Belkis, from a Turkish legend that the temple had been the residence of Solomon's wife.

Fifteen columns remain standing today and a sixteenth column lies on the ground where it fell during a storm in 1852. Nothing remains of the cella or the great statue that it once housed.

The temple was excavated in 1889-1896 by Francis Penrose of the British School in Athens (who also played a leading role in the restoration of the Parthenon), in 1922 by the German archaeologist Gabriel Welter and in the 1960s by Greek archaeologists led by Ioannes Travlos. The temple, along with the surrounding ruins of other ancient structures, is a historical precinct administered by Ephorate of Antiquites of the Greek Interior Ministry.

On 21 January 2007, a group of Hellenic neopagans held a ceremony honoring Zeus on the grounds of the temple. The event was organized by Ellinais, an organization which won a court battle to obtain recognition for Ancient Greek religious practices in the fall of 2006.


Temple Of Olympian Zeus, Athens

The Temple of Olympian Zeus (Greek: Ναός του Ολυμπίου Διός, Naós tou Olympíou Diós), is a former colossal temple at the center of the Greek capital Athens it is also known as the Olympieion or Columns of the Olympian Zeus. It was dedicated to “Olympian” Zeus, a name originating from his position as head of the Olympian gods.

The building of the Temple of Olympian Zeus actually began in the 6th Century by Peisistratos but work was stopped either because of a lack of money or because Pisistratus’s son, Hippias, was overthrown in 510 BC. The temple was not finished until Emperor Hadrian completed in 131 AD, seven hundred years later. There were other attempts to continue the building. The Classical Greeks (487-379) left it unfinished because they believed it was too big and symbolized the arrogance of people who believed they were equal to the Gods. During the Third Century when the Macedonians ruled Athens work was begun again by Antiochus the IV of Syria who wanted to build the world’s largest temple and hired the Roman architect Cossotius to complete the job, but this ended when Antiochus died. In 86 BC, during Roman rule, the general Sulla took two columns from the unfinished temple to Rome for the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill which influenced the development of the Corinthian style in Rome.

The temple stands within a walking distance from the Athens center, only 500 m southeast of the Acropolis and 700 m south of Syntagma Square. This temple is very close to other monuments of Athens, such as Kallimarmaro Stadium, the Hadrian’s Arch, and Zappeion Megaron. The temple’s glory was short-lived, as it fell into disuse after being pillaged during a barbarian invasion in 267 AD, just about a century after its completion. It was probably never repaired and was reduced to ruins thereafter. In the centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire, it was extensively quarried for building materials to supply building projects elsewhere in the city. Despite that, a substantial part of the temple remains today, notably sixteen of the original gigantic columns, and it continues to be part of a very important archaeological site of Greece.

Located South-East of Hadrian’s Arch, the temple covered a surface of approximately 5,000 sq m and was symmetrically positioned in a rectangular enclosure with a perimeter of 673 m. This immense terrace is surrounded by a strong precinct of porous stone, with a hundred buttresses, at a distance over 5 meters each. The total perimeter is 668 m. (2188 ft.) approaching the 4 stadia indicated by Pausanias.

The building was demolished after the death of Peisistratos and the construction of a colossal new Temple of Olympian Zeus was begun around 520 BC by his sons, Hippias and Hipparchos. They sought to surpass two famous contemporary temples, the Heraion of Samos and the second Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Designed by the architects Antistates, Callaeschrus, Antimachides and Phormos, the Temple of Olympian Zeus was intended to be built of local limestone in the Doric style on a colossal platform measuring 41 m (134 ft 6 in) by 108 m (354 ft 4 in). It was to be flanked by a double colonnade of eight columns across the front and back and twenty-one on the flanks, surrounding the cella.

The entrance to this enclosure was attained by means of a propylon with four Doric columns, situated 45 m. from the North-Eastern angle this propylon 10.5 m. broad and 5.4 deep, somewhat resembled the Agora Gateway erected under Augustus. Another principal, and impressive, the entrance of the temple, not in existence anymore, was on the West. The temple stood in the middle of the terrace. It was a dipteros (two-winged) octastylos (8-columned), that is, it had 5 rows of 20 columns at the sides and 3 rows of 8 columns at the two fronts, East and West. 124 Corinthian columns in all, 17.25 m. (56 ft.) in height, 1.7 m. (5,5 ft.) diameter, below at the summit. The architrave of 3 fillets is composed of 2 beams 2.25 m. high and 6 m. long. The temple itself measured at the base 107 m. (353.5 ft.) in length by 41 m. in width therefore, along with the temples of Ephesos, Selinous and Agrigent, there were the largest temples of their time.

The fate of one of the columns is recorded by a Greek inscription on one of the surviving columns, which states that “on 27 th April 1759 he pulled down the column”. This refers to the Turkish governor of Athens, Mustapha Agha Tzistarakis, who is recorded by a chronicler as having “destroyed one of Hadrian’s columns with gunpowder” in order to re-use the marble to make plaster for the Tzistarakis Mosque that he was building in the Monastiraki district of the city. During the Ottoman period, the temple was known to the Greeks as the Palace of Hadrian, while the Turks called it the Palace of Belkis, from a Turkish legend that the temple had been the residence of Solomon’s wife.

Originally there were 104 Corinthian columns of which only 15 remain standing. One of the columns actually blew down in a storm in 1852. Hadrian had erected a giant gold and ivory statue of Zeus inside the temple with an equally large one of himself next to it. Nothing remains of these statues. It is not known when the temple of Zeus was destroyed but it probably came down in an earthquake during the medieval period. Like other ancient buildings, much of it was taken away for building materials.

In the early 1800s a stylite a group of ascetics who spent long periods sitting or standing on top of pillars or columns. The word comes from the Greek stylos for column built his dwelling on top of one of the columns of the temple and it can be seen in early paintings and drawings.

he temple was excavated in 1889–1896 by Francis Penrose of the British School in Athens (who also played a leading role in the restoration of the Parthenon), in 1922 by the German archaeologist Gabriel Welter and in the 1960s by Greek archaeologists led by Ioannes Travlos. The temple, along with the surrounding ruins of other ancient structures, is a historical precinct administered by Ephorate of Antiquities of the Greek Interior Ministry. Today, the temple is an open-air museum, part of the unification of the archaeological sites of Athens. As a historical site, it is protected and supervised by the Ephorate of Antiquities.


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